пятница, 29 декабря 2017 г.

Early Indo-European migrations map

Wikipedia has a new animated gif of early Indo-European migrations (available at various resolutions here). It’s pretty good overall, but very speculative and potentially erroneous in parts. For instance, my understanding is that the Vedic Aryans did not emerge from BMAC per se, as the map suggests, but rather from an post-BMAC phenomenon heavily influenced by steppe pastoralists. Hi-res ancient DNA from BMAC and post-BMAC sites should be able to resolve this issue.



As far as I know, BMAC remains were being tested at Harvard earlier this year, but the year is almost out, and nothing has been published. So either David Reich and co. are keeping the results for a new paper on the Indo-European homeland question, or they couldn’t get any usable data from the samples. Keep in mind that only 30-40% of the ancient remains that are tested at Harvard are successfully genotyped. I can imagine that the success rate for samples from arid locations, like former BMAC sites in Turkmenistan, is even lower. Update 31/12/2016: Commentator Tapatuevik Kaarmkyno points us to an article from earlier this year at NIH Record featuring this quote from David Reich:”We’ve sequenced more than 1,000 samples in our own lab — there’s not enough time to publish”. That’s probably why the second half of 2016 was so agonizingly slow. Next year should be awesome. See also… Maybe first direct hints of Yamnaya-related gene flow into South Central AsiaqpAdm tour of Europe: the Bronze Age invasion Source Eurogenes Blog


Something very cool I thought you would all like. Enjoy!


Something very cool I thought you would all like. Enjoy!


Source Marine Biology Facts and Information


rhubarbes:Dave Malan Art


rhubarbes:



Dave Malan Art



metropolisoftomorrow: cyberpunk by sqps w


metropolisoftomorrow:



cyberpunk by sqps w



camerxn:John Zino







camerxn:



John Zino



Portrait of Federico II Gonzaga, 1525, TitianSize: 99×125…


Portrait of Federico II Gonzaga, 1525, Titian


Size: 99×125 cm
Medium: oil, canvas


The Baptism of Christ, 1475, Leonardo Da VinciSize: 177×151…


The Baptism of Christ, 1475, Leonardo Da Vinci


Size: 177×151 cm
Medium: oil, panel, tempera


Vincenzo Anastagi, 1575, El GrecoSize: 127×188 cmMedium: oil,…


Vincenzo Anastagi, 1575, El Greco


Size: 127×188 cm
Medium: oil, canvas


archaeoart:Mayan temple at Ixchel, Isla Mujeres, Mexico, circa…


archaeoart:



Mayan temple at Ixchel, Isla Mujeres, Mexico, circa 1925.



nationalmuseum-swe Peter Paul Rubens, 1577-1640 Susanna and…


nationalmuseum-swe


Peter Paul Rubens, 1577-1640


Susanna and the Elders, 1614, oil on oak, 66×51 cm


National Museum, Sweden           Inv. NM 603


themodernartists Alexandra Exter (Aleksandra Aleksandrovna…



themodernartists 


Alexandra Exter (Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Ekster), 1882-1949


Orpheus and Eurydice, n/d, on canvas, 62×98 cm


Private Collection


thomerama Giovanni Martinelli, 1600-1659 Allegory of…


thomerama 


Giovanni Martinelli, 1600-1659


Allegory of Astronomy, n/d, oil on canvas, 67,3×52,7 cm


Private Collection


Erasmus Quellinus II, 1607-1678The Triumph of Galatea, n/d, oil…



Erasmus Quellinus II, 1607-1678


The Triumph of Galatea, n/d, oil on canvas


Private Collection   (© Jean-Louis Torsin)


Erasmus Quellinus II, 1607-1678 Artemisia, 1652, oil on canvas,…



Erasmus Quellinus II, 1607-1678


Artemisia, 1652, oil on canvas, 124,4×139,7 cm


Hunterian Art Gallery, University of Glasgow          Inv. GLAHA_43781


Pierre Amédée Marcel-Béronneau, 1869-1937 Ondine / La…


Pierre Amédée Marcel-Béronneau, 1869-1937


Ondine / La Naïade, ca.1905/10, huile sur toile, 73×60 cm


Private Collection


Henry John Stock, 1853-1930 Paolo and Francesca (study),…


Henry John Stock, 1853-1930 


Paolo and Francesca (study), 1919, pencil, 71,1×49,5 cm


Private Colection


Henry John Stock, 1853-1930 Night, 1881, pencil and…


Henry John Stock, 1853-1930 


Night, 1881, pencil and watercolor, 31,8×18,4 cm


Private Collection     (Christie’s)


Paul Grabwinkler, 1880-1946 A water sprite consoling a Nymph,…


Paul Grabwinkler, 1880-1946


A water sprite consoling a Nymph, n/d, oil on canvas, 82,3×78 cm 


Private Collection


bbcearth Soar above the ground with a white-tailed sea eagle.






A post shared by BBC Earth (@bbcearth) on






bbcearth Soar above the ground with a white-tailed sea eagle.



Are we alone in the universe?

There’s never been a better time to ponder this age-old question. We now know of thousands of exoplanets – planets that orbit stars elsewhere in the universe.


image

So just how many of these planets could support life?


Scientists from a variety of fields — including astrophysics, Earth science, heliophysics and planetary science — are working on this question. Here are a few of the strategies they’re using to learn more about the habitability of exoplanets.


Squinting at Earth


Even our best telescopic images of exoplanets are still only a few pixels in size. Just how much information can we extract from such limited data? That’s what Earth scientists have been trying to figure out.


One group of scientists has been taking high-resolution images of Earth from our Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera and ‘degrading’ them in order to match the resolution of our pixelated exoplanet images. From there, they set about a grand process of reverse-engineering: They try to extract as much accurate information as they can from what seems — at first glance — to be a fairly uninformative image.


image


Credits: NOAA/NASA/DSCOVR



So far, by looking at how Earth’s brightness changes when land versus water is in view, scientists have been able to reverse-engineer Earth’s albedo (the proportion of solar radiation it reflects), its obliquity (the tilt of its axis relative to its orbital plane), its rate of rotation, and even differences between the seasons. All of these factors could potentially influence a planet’s ability to support life.


Avoiding the “Venus Zone”


In life as in science, even bad examples can be instructive. When it comes to habitability, Venus is a bad example indeed: With an average surface temperature of 850 degrees Fahrenheit, an atmosphere filled with sulfuric acid, and surface pressure 90 times stronger than Earth’s, Venus is far from friendly to life as we know it.


image


The surface of Venus, imaged by Soviet spacecraft Venera 13 in March 1982



Since Earth and Venus are so close in size and yet so different in habitability, scientists are studying the signatures that distinguish Earth from Venus as a tool for differentiating habitable planets from their unfriendly look-alikes.


Using data from our Kepler Space Telescope, scientists are working to define the “Venus Zone,” an area where planetary insolation – the amount of light a given planet receives from its host star – plays a key role in atmospheric erosion and greenhouse gas cycles.


image

Planets that appear similar to Earth, but are in the Venus Zone of their star, are, we think, unlikely to be able to support life.


Modeling Star-Planet Interactions


When you don’t know one variable in an equation, it can help to plug in a reasonable guess and see how things work out. Scientists used this process to study Proxima b, our closest exoplanet neighbor. We don’t yet know whether Proxima b, which orbits the red dwarf star Proxima Centauri four light-years away, has an atmosphere or a magnetic field like Earth’s. However, we can estimate what would happen if it did.


The scientists started by calculating the radiation emitted by Proxima Centauri based on observations from our Chandra X-ray Observatory. Given that amount of radiation, they estimated how much atmosphere Proxima b would be likely to lose due to ionospheric escape — a process in which the constant outpouring of charged stellar material strips away atmospheric gases.


image

With the extreme conditions likely to exist at Proxima b, the planet could lose the equivalent of Earth’s entire atmosphere in 100 million years — just a fraction of Proxima b’s 4-billion-year lifetime. Even in the best-case scenario, that much atmospheric mass escapes over 2 billion years. In other words, even if Proxima b did at one point have an atmosphere like Earth, it would likely be long gone by now.


Imagining Mars with a Different Star


We think Mars was once habitable, supporting water and an atmosphere like Earth’s. But over time, it gradually lost its atmosphere – in part because Mars, unlike Earth, doesn’t have a protective magnetic field, so Mars is exposed to much harsher radiation from the Sun’s solar wind.


image

But as another rocky planet at the edge of our solar system’s habitable zone, Mars provides a useful model for a potentially habitable planet. Data from our Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, or MAVEN, mission is helping scientists answer the question: How would Mars have evolved if it were orbiting a different kind of star?


Scientists used computer simulations with data from MAVEN to model a Mars-like planet orbiting a hypothetical M-type red dwarf star. The habitable zone of such a star is much closer than the one around our Sun.


image

Being in the habitable zone that much closer to a star has repercussions. In this imaginary situation, the planet would receive about 5 to 10 times more ultraviolet radiation than the real Mars does, speeding up atmospheric escape to much higher rates and shortening the habitable period for the planet by a factor of about 5 to 20.


These results make clear just how delicate a balance needs to exist for life to flourish. But each of these methods provides a valuable new tool in the multi-faceted search for exoplanet life.  Armed with these tools, and bringing to bear a diversity of scientific perspectives, we are better positioned than ever to ask: are we alone?


Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.


A dried date

A dried date


met-musical-instruments: Serpent Forveille in B-flat by…


met-musical-instruments:



Serpent Forveille in B-flat by Forveille, Musical Instruments


Medium: Wood, leather


The Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments, 1889

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/501672



Cist Cairn 2 at the Merrivale Prehistoric Complex, Dartmoor,…





Cist Cairn 2 at the Merrivale Prehistoric Complex, Dartmoor, 27.12.17.


This Bronze Age cairn was completely flooded due to rain and snow. The interior is a stone box of about 2ft in depth.


Stone Row 2 at the Merrivale Prehistoric Complex, Dartmoor,…








Stone Row 2 at the Merrivale Prehistoric Complex, Dartmoor, 27.12.17.


This is the second stone row at the complex. The first can be seen alongside in the penultimate image. This row runs for several hundred yards and both rows run parallel to a stream.


Tonight’s Sky: January 2017


Backyard stargazers get a monthly guide to the northern hemisphere’s skywatching events with “Tonight’s Sky.” In December, an annual meteor shower peaks early.


Also published in YouTube.


The remains of Alien hybrid from Peru

Strange “Alien” mummified Hand Found On The Coast Of Peru


Hand remains of alien
Hand remains of alien and human hand

Mummified remains of an unidentified creature presumably from Peru.


At first glance it can be seen on the ground neither in the past nor now like creatures.


The creature probably belonged to a humanoid kind is similar to ours.


xrays fractures of the alien creatures.
The hand has multiple fractures, perhaps this is due to the cause of death of the alien creatures.

29 декабря 1788 года родился Кристиан Томсен — датский...


В.С. Бочкарёв, 2009
29 декабря 1788 года родился Кристиан Томсен — датский археолог, создатель «системы трёх веков», первый директор Датского национального музея.


О “системе трех веков”: http://kronk.spb.ru/library/bochkariov-vs-2009.htm
Материалы по археологии


29 декабря 1922 года родился Владимир Иванович Марковин —...


Памяти Владимира Ивановича Марковина (1922-2008) | Археология
29 декабря 1922 года родился Владимир Иванович Марковин — археолог, доктор исторических наук, специалист по бронзовому веку Кавказа, занимался изучением дольменов Северного Кавказа и Абхазии, художник.


Биография: http://arheologija.ru/pamyati-vladimira-ivanovicha-ma..
Материалы по археологии


Neptunite While it was first discovered in the Narssârssuk…




Neptunite


While it was first discovered in the Narssârssuk pegmatite of western Greenland in 1893 (see http://bit.ly/2l1TNFb), most of the beautiful specimens on the market originate in the Benitoite mine of California in association with a white natrolite matrix (see http://bit.ly/2BTPO84), though the 6.7 x 1.7 x 1.2 cm whopper in the photos is what mineral people call a floater, a crystal that grew in a cavity without being attached to the matrix or country rock wall. This saves on preparation and makes extraction easy, many specimens on the market have had the matrix removed with acids to expose the crystals.

Glorious Jupiter, observed by the Cassini probe on December 29,…


Glorious Jupiter, observed by the Cassini probe on December 29, 2000.


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