пятница, 20 октября 2017 г.

“How a Braggart was Drowned in a Well”, Folio 33v from a Haft Paikar (Seven Portraits) of the...

“How a Braggart was Drowned in a Well”, Folio 33v from a Haft Paikar (Seven Portraits) of the Khamsa (Quintet) of Nizami by Maulana Azhar


Terracotta vessel fragment with polychrome motifs, Greek and…


Terracotta vessel fragment with polychrome motifs, Greek and Roman Art


Medium: Terracotta


Gift of Ashmolean Museum, by exchange, 1911

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/248541


Architectural Ornament: Bunch of Grapes

Architectural Ornament: Bunch of Grapes


What are Quarks?A quark is a type of elementary particle and a…


What are Quarks?


A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei.


image

There are six types of quarks, known as flavors: up, down, strange, charm, top, and bottom Up and down quarks have the lowest masses of all quarks. The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Because of this, up and down quarks are generally stable and the most common in the universe, whereas strange, charm, bottom, and top quarks can only be produced in high energy collisions (such as those involving cosmic rays and in particle accelerators).


image


Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks are never directly observed or found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, such as baryons (of which protons and neutrons are examples) and mesons. For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of the hadrons themselves. 


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This movie illustrates the action inside the nucleus of a deuterium atom containing a proton and a neutron, each with three quarks. An electron strikes a quark inside a proton, passing energy to the quark before the electron bounces back. The quark now has so much energy “stuffed” into it, it creates a cascade of new particles as it flies out of the proton. The result is two new, two-quark particles.



Quarks have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge, mass, color charge, and spin. Quarks are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics to experience all four fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces (electromagnetism, gravitation, strong interaction, and weak interaction), as well as the only known particles whose electric charges are not integer multiples of the elementary charge.


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An animation of the interaction inside a neutron. The gluons are represented as circles with the color charge in the center and the anti-color charge on the outside. 




  • Mass 


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Current quark masses for all six flavors in comparison, as balls of proportional volumes. Proton and electron (red) are shown in bottom left corner for scale.



Two terms are used in referring to a quark’s mass: current quark mass refers to the mass of a quark by itself, while constituent quark massrefers to the current quark mass plus the mass of the gluon particle field surrounding the quark. These masses typically have very different values. Most of a hadron’s mass comes from the gluons that bind the constituent quarks together, rather than from the quarks themselves. 



  • Field lines from color charges 


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In quantum chromodynamics, a quark’s color can take one of three values or charges, red, green, and blue. An antiquark can take one of three anticolors, called antired, antigreen, and antiblue (represented as cyan, magenta and yellow, respectively). Gluons are mixtures of two colors, such as red and antigreen, which constitutes their color charge. QCD considers eight gluons of the possible nine color–anticolor combinations to be unique.



  • Spin


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In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.


Spin is one of two types of angular momentum in quantum mechanics, the other being orbital angular momentum. The orbital angular momentum operator is the quantum-mechanical counterpart to the classical angular momentum of orbital revolution: it arises when a particle executes a rotating or twisting trajectory (such as when an electron orbits a nucleus)



  • Gluon



A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks. It is analogous to the exchange of photons in the electromagnetic force between two charged particles. In layman’s terms, they “glue” quarks together, forming protons and neutrons.



  • Baryons and Mesons


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A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks. Baryons and mesons belong to the hadron family of particles, which are the quark-based particles.  As quark-based particles, baryons participate in the strong interaction, whereas leptons, which are not quark-based, do not.


In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by the strong interaction. Because mesons are composed of quark sub-particles, they have a physical size, with a diameter of roughly one femtometer, which is about  23 the size of a proton or neutron. All mesons are unstable, with the longest-lived lasting for only a few hundredths of a microsecond. Charged mesons decay (sometimes through mediating particles) to form electronsand neutrinos. Uncharged mesons may decay to photons. Both of these decays imply that color is no longer a property of the byproducts.


Source: wikipediahyperphysics (To know more click the links: Baryon, Meson, Gluon) Images: x, x, x, x, x


Astronomy & Astrophysics


Chandra Celebrates the International Year of Light js


Chandra Celebrates the International Year of Light


js


Jackal-headed god Anubis from the Tomb of Horemheb (KV57),…


Jackal-headed god Anubis from the Tomb of Horemheb (KV57),
Valley of the Kings, West Thebes.


Seal Stamp, Islamic ArtMedium: Chalcedony (carnelian)Gift of Dr….


Seal Stamp, Islamic Art


Medium: Chalcedony (carnelian)


Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Lewis Balamuth, 1971

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/452246


Marble statue of a seated muse

Marble statue of a seated muse


Aegis of Bastet / Sakhmet, Egyptian ArtMedium: Cupreous…


Aegis of Bastet / Sakhmet, Egyptian Art


Medium: Cupreous metal


Museum Accession

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/552440


Sakçagözü Orthostats, 1200-700 B.C.. It seems that they are…


Sakçagözü Orthostats, 1200-700 B.C.. It seems that they are blessing the “life tree”, due their stances. Museum of Anatolian Civilizataions.


#ancient #history #photography


Triceratops skull!





Triceratops skull!


palaeoart This is a quick video to show how useful a Black Light…






A post shared by Palaeoart (@palaeoart) on






palaeoart This is a quick video to show how useful a Black Light torch (UV-light) is in Palaeontology. I’ve picked a random selection of fossils and shown what they look like under UV. Not only do different fossil sections glow neon pinks, greens and reds (especially fossil teeth), you get to see different features and textures very hard to see with the naked eye. One of the most important uses of black light however is that it can easily some up areas of restoration or repair. On the final fossilised skull I pick up in this video you can instantly see the areas of repair glowing neon green. This is impossible to see with the naked eye!! $10 well spent in my view especially if you’re investing in expensive fossils.



One day before Caturday…






A post shared by Nat Geo WILD (@natgeowild) on





One day before Caturday…


Seeing One Example Of Merging Neutron Stars Raises Five…











Seeing One Example Of Merging Neutron Stars Raises Five Incredible Questions



“1.) What is the rate at which neutron star-neutron star mergers occur? Before this event was observed, we had two ways of estimating how frequently two neutron stars would merge: from measurements of binary neutron stars in our galaxy (such as from pulsars), and from our theoretical models of star formation, supernovae, and their remnants. That gave us a mean estimate of around 100 such mergers every year within a cubic gigaparsec of space.


Thanks to the observation of this event, we now have our first observational rate estimate, and it’s about ten times larger than we expected. We thought we would need LIGO to reach its design sensitivity (it’s only halfway there) before seeing anything, and then on top of that we thought that pinpointing the location in at least 3 detectors would be unlikely. Yet we not only got it early, we localized it on the first try. So now the question is, did we just get lucky by seeing this one event, or is the true event rate really so much higher? And if it is, then what is it about our theoretical models that are so wrong?”



Now that we’ve observed merging neutron stars for the first time, in many different wavelengths of light as well as in gravitational waves, we’ve got a whole new world of data to work with. We’ve independently confirmed that gravitational waves are real and that we can, in fact, pinpoint their locations on the sky. We’ve demonstrated that merging neutron stars create short gamma ray bursts, and shown that the origin of the majority of elements heavier than the first row of transition metals comes primarily from neutron star-neutron star mergers. But the new discovery raises a ton of questions, too. Seeing this event has presented theorists with a number of new challenges, ranging from the event rate being some ten times as great as expected to much more matter being ejected than we’d thought. And what was it that was left behind? Was it a neutron star? A black hole? Or an exotic object that’s in its own class?


There are some great advances that the future will hold for gravitational wave and neutron star astronomy, but it’s up to theorists to explain why these objects behave as they do. Here are five burning questions we now have.


met-robert-lehman: Dish (piatto) by Francesco Xanto Avelli da…


met-robert-lehman:



Dish (piatto) by Francesco Xanto Avelli da Rovigo, Robert Lehman Collection


Medium: Maiolica (tin-glazed earthenware)


Robert Lehman Collection, 1975

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/460205



Letter Case, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the AmericasMedium:…


Letter Case, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas


Medium: Birchbark, silk, moosehair


Ralph T. Coe Collection, Gift of Ralph T. Coe Foundation for the Arts, 2011

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/319225


Border Fragment

Border Fragment


met-armsarmor: Sword-Hilt Collar (Fuchi), Arms and ArmorMedium:…


met-armsarmor:



Sword-Hilt Collar (Fuchi), Arms and Armor


Medium: Iron, gold, copper


Gift of Bashford Dean, 1919

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/26068



Dirhem

Dirhem


Blade Runner 2049 – Tribute #3 by Bastien Grivet



Blade Runner 2049 – Tribute #3 by Bastien Grivet


made in abyss1 by yingyi xsu



made in abyss1 by yingyi xsu


looking-to-the-future:The Betty from Alien Resurrection…


looking-to-the-future:



The Betty from Alien Resurrection by Graham TG



Space Ships fleet – polycount #spaceship –…


Space Ships fleet – polycount #spaceship – https://www.pinterest.com/pin/541206080212553730/


ArtStation – Zarek Industrial – Enforcer, Alex Clarke #spaceship…


ArtStation – Zarek Industrial – Enforcer, Alex Clarke #spaceship – https://www.pinterest.com/pin/370561875581770993/


Presentation – Vorlon Transport by dlamont #spaceship –…


Presentation – Vorlon Transport by dlamont #spaceship – https://www.pinterest.com/pin/206321226662709799/


The Vault of Retro Sci-Fi #spaceship –…


The Vault of Retro Sci-Fi #spaceship – https://www.pinterest.com/pin/206321226662710277/


The battle of U.S.S Nautilus by johnsonting #spaceship –…


The battle of U.S.S Nautilus by johnsonting #spaceship – https://www.pinterest.com/pin/206321226662710295/


Une sélection de 25 concepts de design de vaisseaux spatiaux…


Une sélection de 25 concepts de design de vaisseaux spatiaux tous plus beaux les uns que les autres, imaginés et dessinés par l’illustrateur russe KaranaK, s #spaceship – https://www.pinterest.com/pin/541206080212676618/


BOMBTURBATION Yes, it’s your new word for the day and a real…


BOMBTURBATION


Yes, it’s your new word for the day and a real phenomenon studied by today’s geoscientists – bombturbation.


Essentially, it reflects the change in a geomorphologic surface due to bombing. Whether by cannon balls or A-bombs, whenever the surface of the Earth is blown up, there is a tendency to create craters. Bombturbation was initially applied to the disturbance of soil due to warfare (Hupy and others 2006): a bomb or some sort of artillery explosion excavates a crater, ejecting soils out into a surrounding rim of mixed material. Bombing can have the effect of creating entirely new geomorphological environments as seen in photos of Omaha Beach (#37 at http://tinyurl.com/nyhdu8), US Civil War Battlefields (http://tinyurl.com/kamaebd), or as in the present photo, the Nevada nuclear test site.

cry-olophosaurus: Neoparadoxia is a genus of extinct…


cry-olophosaurus:



Neoparadoxia is a genus of extinct paleoparadoxid mammal from the Miocene of North America. It falls in the order Desmostylia, the only known order of marine mammals to be completely extinct. It’s closest extant relatives are animals such as elephants and manatees.


The genus contains two known species; N. repenningi and N. cicilialina.


This specific mount of N. cicilialina , located at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles, is the most complete Desmostylian skeleton to have been found in North America.



carnegiemuseumnaturalhistory:These fossils were found in a…


carnegiemuseumnaturalhistory:



These fossils were found in a quarry in Solnhofen, Germany, which was once a series of shallow, tropical lagoons. The environmental conditions at Solnhofen resulted in remarkably preserved fossils of Late Jurassic plants, invertebrates, fish, reptiles, and bird species like these fossils on display in Dinosaurs in Their Time.



met-armsarmor: Cuirass of a Haramaki, Arms and ArmorMedium:…


met-armsarmor:



Cuirass of a Haramaki, Arms and Armor


Medium: Iron, lacquer, leather, silk, gilt copper


Gift of Bashford Dean, 1914

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/22496



Bit, Arms and ArmorMedium: IronGift of Bashford Dean, by…


Bit, Arms and Armor


Medium: Iron


Gift of Bashford Dean, by exchange, 1906 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/22091


The Betty from Alien Resurrection by Graham TG


The Betty from Alien Resurrection by Graham TG


Star Wars Battlefront Rogue One concept art by Esbjörn Nord




Star Wars Battlefront Rogue One concept art by Esbjörn Nord


met-musical-instruments: Pandeiro, Musical InstrumentsMedium:…


met-musical-instruments:



Pandeiro, Musical Instruments


Medium: tin


The Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments, 1889

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/501456



met-european-paintings: Portrait of a Man, Said to Be John…


met-european-paintings:



Portrait of a Man, Said to Be John Durham by John Barry, European Paintings


Medium: Ivory


Bequest of Millie Bruhl Fredrick, 1962

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/435611



Ba-Bird Amulet, Egyptian ArtMedium: FaienceFunds from various…


Ba-Bird Amulet, Egyptian Art


Medium: Faience


Funds from various donors, 1886

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/570757


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