понедельник, 25 сентября 2017 г.

Painted Worlds

Painted Worlds

By JARRETT A. LOBELL




Moche Panamarca Procession


The cover of the Autumn 1951 issue of ARCHAEOLOGY features a dramatic scene of close combat between two men, teeth bared, faces bright red with exertion, garments flying, pulling each other’s hair so violently that each grips the ripped-out forelock of his foe. Created by the artist Pedro Azabache, this cover is a replica of a wall painting at the site of Pañamarca on the northwest coast of Peru, done very shortly after the work’s rediscovery. Mural A depicts a contest between Ai-Apaec, the mythological hero worshipped by the Moche culture, which flourished in this region between about A.D. 200 and 900, and his twin or double. Although Pañamarca’s impressive ruins on a granite outcropping in the lower Nepeña River Valley were well known in the first half of the twentieth century, and had been described by travelers in the late nineteenth century, only a few articles about the site had been published and very little had been said about its wall paintings. Thus, when American archaeologist Richard Schaedel arrived there in 1950, he believed that any paintings he might find would be fragmentary at best. Once there, however, he soon found that Pañamarca’s adobe structures had been completely covered in polychrome murals. In a single week—originally planned for five days, the trip was extended when more murals and a group of burials were discovered—Schaedel and his five-person team not only recorded the combat scene, but also discovered new murals of what he identified as a large cat-demon and an anthropomorphic bird. On the walls of a large plaza, they documented a 30-foot-long composition showing a procession of warriors and priests wearing a costume with knife-shaped backflaps known to have been part of Moche sacrificial rituals.


Though in less than pristine condition after more than 1,000 years, the abundance and unexpected state of preservation of Pañamarca’s murals surprised and delighted Schaedel. But it also concerned him. In his article about the site for Archaeology, he writes, “We hope that this description [of the paintings] will serve as a timely note and warning to lovers of art and archaeology in Peru and elsewhere that this rich source of vivid mural decoration, which today only awaits the patience of the archaeologist to reveal, may tomorrow be irrevocably destroyed. If these still unrevealed documents of the human spirit are not to be forever lost to us, we must constantly keep in mind two ideals: as archaeologists, to devote our attention first and foremost to the adequate documentation of fragile paintings; and to create among the public in general an awareness of their aesthetic as well as their documentary value, so that the present apathy towards their preservation may be replaced by a sense of obligation to their protection.”


Over the more than 65 years since Schaedel’s work at Pañamarca, it was widely assumed that his admonitions had been ignored or forgotten, and that the surviving murals had fallen into ruin. Very little fieldwork was conducted after Schaedel’s excavations and work by Duccio Bonavia later in the 1950s, and only a few new paintings were discovered. When archaeologist and art historian Lisa Trever of the University of California, Berkeley, chose to work in Pañamarca in 2010 along with her Peruvian colleagues Jorge Gamboa, Ricardo Toribio, and Ricardo Morales, she wasn’t very hopeful. “I was pessimistic when we began, figuring that most of the murals that had been discovered before had been destroyed, so we set out to map where the paintings had been and to contextualize what remained,” she says. “But when we began to dig, we were shocked that so much had survived from the earlier excavations.” What was even more surprising was that so much more remained in situ, intact, and unexcavated. “We were soon looking at things that no one had seen since A.D. 780, when parts of the site were deliberately buried,” says Trever. “We went in with a sense that Pañamarca was a site of lost monuments and lost masterpieces of the ancient Peruvian past, and were amazed to find out that not everything was lost at all.”
















Slideshow:



“Moche


Exploring Moche Murals






Moche Panamarca VintageThe name “Moche” or “Mochica” comes not from any ancient source, but was given to the culture in the 1930s because the region’s ancient center was located near the modern town of Moche. Rather than being a single political entity or state, the Moche culture was a loose system of chiefdoms situated in multiple irrigated valleys, linked by shared practices and common beliefs. Their territory encompassed more than 400 miles along the coast of northern Peru. While not exactly a political capital, the cultural and artistic homeland of the Moche world was located in the Chicama and Moche Valleys, near the city of Trujillo. At some point, Pañamarca, which was about 100 miles to the south, grew in religious and cultural importance.


The Moche were skilled builders and artists. At some sites they demonstrated this by undertaking large construction projects. Other locations were peopled with accomplished metalsmiths or expert ceramicists, and still others boasted gifted mural painters. “There is an interesting view developing among scholars about a world of different accomplishments in different places that breaks down the monolithic view of Moche culture,” says Trever. Moche potters created evocative ceramics depicting daily life, the natural world, religious sacrifices, and deformed and even skeletal figures, as well as an extraordinary panoply of hybrid monsters, mythological creatures, and gods in many forms. Gold and silver earspools, necklaces, and rings, some of which are inlaid with semiprecious stones, have been found at many Moche sites. Early Moche artists sculpted clay bas reliefs and covered them with mineral-based pigments at sacred locations such as Huacas de Moche, with its highly decorated Huaca de la Luna, and at Huaca Cao Viejo with its parade of naked captives and intricate geometric patterns. Later, they abandoned the relief style and replaced it with the flat narratives that cover the smooth adobe walls of their temples and public buildings. These paintings reveal much not only about the Moche in general, but also about how Moche rulers chose particular ways of expressing their local identity in a world where heterogeneity reigned.


Moche Panamarca Combatants


According to the German linguist Ernst Middendorf, who visited the ruins of Pañamarca in 1886, the Quechua name for the site, “Panamarquilla,” means “little fortress on the right bank of the river.” Trever, however, suggests a different, and more evocative, reading of the name: “little fortress of the paintings.” Pañamarca’s artists were deeply invested in painting, and the murals that cover their monumental temples, including the Temple of the Painted Pillars, reference a Moche ideology focused on either supernatural beings engaging in mythological acts or on human beings performing ritual acts, explains Trever. But adobe is ultimately not permanent—it is eroded and damaged by rain, wind, and time in a way that stone is not. “Because they are building fast, they are constantly remaking their built environment. This gives an immediate sense of their ongoing engagement with the living world,” says Trever. “And because Moche architecture, like Mesoamerican architecture, is renovated and not knocked down, what you end up with is like a set of architectural nesting dolls or onion skins.”
















Slideshow:



“Moche


Exploring Moche Murals





 


Furthermore, at Pañamarca, Trever sees a localized expression of identity reflected in the murals that is very different from what can be seen at other Moche sites. She believes there was an anxiety about being in the hinterland, 100 miles from the Moche epicenter, that may have led to an increased sense of orthodoxy in the imagery. “What is striking here is that we don’t see a hybrid form of Moche at all, but an even more conservative, even more explicit, Moche ideology expressed,” she says. “It’s almost like they have doubled down on the canon because they are in a more remote location intermingling with peoples of other cultures who aren’t like them.”


Moche Panamarca Mural Fish


What is also unusual at Pañamarca is that there is a density of these canonical images not only in the most public, visible spaces of the temples, but also in restricted, private spaces. While at Huaca de la Luna the inside of many of the temple’s rooms are simply white, at Pañamarca every surface that Trever and her team have excavated is covered in paintings. “It’s almost as if they needed to remind even themselves at every step what it means to be part of a culture, especially when you are far from the heartland,” explains Trever. Says Peruvian archaeologist Gabriel Prieto, “Whatever the reason was to paint all these murals here, it’s clear to me that one of the intentions was to show users of and visitors to these monuments the complexity, quality, and order of the Moche’s most important rituals, stories, and, perhaps, historic events. The paintings at Pañamarca are 100 percent Moche, but the style clearly shows some local taste, and this can tell us that the Moche were adaptable and flexible enough to forge relationships with local elites of other cultures.”


Moche Panamarca Painted PillarThough much about Moche art and architecture is well understood, key questions about significant changes in painting styles over time—and how these might be related to shifts in Moche fortunes—are at the forefront of current work. Roughly four centuries after the culture first appeared, some sort of disruption rippled throughout the entire Moche world. The cause, according to archaeologist Michele Koons of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, is the million-dollar question. One possible explanation is an El Niño event, but Koons says that researchers have not yet found definitive evidence of this. She says, “I think that it was probably a mixture of different things—possibly climate change or drought, an earthquake, or some other natural disaster, as well as pressure from highland powers such as the Wari.”


It is not only the cause of the episode, but also the precise date that Koons is interested in. “I realized during the course of my research [at the previously unexcavated Moche site of Licapa II in the Chicama Valley] that the traditional dating for the Moche wasn’t really based on any data, but was built on assumptions about pottery styles that had no relationship to actual dates of any kind,” she explains. “I felt the need to unpack this.” By radiocarbon dating organic remains such as seeds and twigs found in excavated contexts alongside Moche ceramics at multiple sites, Koons was able for the first time to pinpoint the date of the catastrophic event or series of events at around A.D. 600.
















Slideshow:



“Moche


Exploring Moche Murals






Moche Panamarca Yellow Dress


With this newly refined chronology in mind, archaeologists are now able to recognize a fundamental shift in the way Moche leaders presented themselves to their communities and the outside world. “There is some sense at this time that people aren’t really buying into the current way of doing things,” says Koons, “and that their claim to leadership needs to be bolstered. This could have happened for any number of reasons.” For example, climatic events may have caused people to lose faith in their leaders’ ability to protect them. At Moche sites such as Huaca de la Luna, this change in perception is reflected in the murals, which become less repetitive and more narrative. Koons believes that this type of art reveals an awareness of not just who they are, but who they have been. For example, the iconography of sacrifice, which was depicted in Moche art for centuries, can be seen in a nearly documentary manner. “There is a sense that they are saying, ‘This is what we used to do,’” explains Koons. “It’s as if they are becoming more self-reflective and more aware of themselves at some transitional moment.”


Moche Panamarca Hero


The tremendous challenge faced by Trever and her team is that, while the history of other Moche sites prior to A.D. 600 is relatively well understood, the story of Pañamarca earlier than that date is somewhat dark—nothing has been excavated and little is known. What does seem clear is that Pañamarca’s inhabitants ultimately recovered from whatever happened at the start of the seventh century, and that they experienced a kind of renaissance that would last for some 150 years. “The story of Pañamarca is not just about crisis, but also about recovery,” says Trever. It was during this latter phase, on the site of an earlier temple, that Pañamarca’s rulers supervised the construction and expansion of the large walled plaza and monumental adobe pyramids and platforms they covered with vibrant murals. And, as a result of radiocarbon dating of organic construction materials, it is now possible to say that these structures were built between A.D. 600 and 750, the first absolute dates for the Moche in this valley. Still, questions remain unanswered. “Pañamarca’s paintings seem to me to be a large open book, and when I saw them I felt like the Moche were trying to tell me something about their civilization and their glorious past,” says Prieto. What exactly they were saying is still something of a mystery.


Jarrett A. Lobell is executive editor at ARCHAEOLOGY.
















Slideshow:



“Moche


Exploring Moche Murals






Собственное свечение атмосферы (ССА), вызванное излучением...

Собственное свечение атмосферы (ССА), вызванное излучением...


Собственное свечение атмосферы (ССА), вызванное излучением Солнца
(фотоионизация), люминесценцией (свечением в результате вз/д космической радиации с атмосферой) и хемилюминесценцией (химической реакцией между основными составляющими атмосферы: азотом (78%) и кислородом (21%)).
20 сентября 2017 года.
©Сергей Рязанский‏


Анимация смещения арктического холода на территорию Урала,...

Анимация смещения арктического холода на территорию Урала,...

Анимация смещения арктического холода на территорию Урала, ЕТР и В.Европы на высоте 1,5 км (25.09 – 04.10.2017). 🌥❄


astronomyblog: The Andromeda Galaxy Is Coming To Get…

astronomyblog: The Andromeda Galaxy Is Coming To Get…








astronomyblog:



The Andromeda Galaxy Is Coming To Get Us!


Credit: Science Channel, Watch the video here 



Astronomy & Astrophysics


Ceramic Animal Head on a Base, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the…

Ceramic Animal Head on a Base, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the…


Ceramic Animal Head on a Base, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas


Medium: Ceramic


Gift of Timothy, Peter, and Jonathan Zorach, 1980

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/314191


Double-sided Wooden Figure Carving, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and…

Double-sided Wooden Figure Carving, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and…


Double-sided Wooden Figure Carving, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas


Medium: Wood


Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Cummings, 1964

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/309269


Fluorite Rainbow slab | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Geology…

Fluorite Rainbow slab | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Geology…


Fluorite Rainbow slab | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com


“Velvet Beauty” Azurite, Malachite and copper |…

“Velvet Beauty” Azurite, Malachite and copper |…


“Velvet Beauty” Azurite, Malachite and copper | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


It was found in 1890 at Bisbee, Arizona, U.S.A. The chunk weighs about 3 pounds and is about 9″ in diameter. For sale at the 2007 Tucson Gem & Mineral Show


Photo Copyright © cobalt123/flickr


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com


Opalised branch “wood” | #Geology #GeologyPage #Opal…

Opalised branch “wood” | #Geology #GeologyPage #Opal…


Opalised branch “wood” | #Geology #GeologyPage #Opal #Fossil


Locality: Yowah Opal Field , Australia


Photo Copyright © Dieter Rosenkranz


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com


Rainbow Fluorite Slab | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Geology…

Rainbow Fluorite Slab | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Geology…


Rainbow Fluorite Slab | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral


Geology Page

www.geologypage.com


privategemstonecollection:Carnelian

privategemstonecollection:Carnelian


privategemstonecollection:



Carnelian



Hydroxylherderite The apatite group of minerals (see…

Hydroxylherderite The apatite group of minerals (see…


Hydroxylherderite


The apatite group of minerals (see http://bit.ly/2akYWkg) encompasses quite a variety of species, with this variant being a beryllium rich calcium phosphate. Like in the rest of the family, ions of similar size and charge such as OH and fluorine commonly substitute for each other in the crystal lattice alongside the beryllium and calcium, with the final product a result of the composition of the mother fluid from which the piece in question crystallised.


Colour varies from yellow through brown to green or purple, though colourless specimens also turn up. It forms in granitic melts, usually crystallising in pegmatites, the last fluid rich parts of the magma that have concentrated all the rare and unusual elements that do not fit into the more common minerals’ lattices. It forms in the late stages of crystallisation, often in cavities as water and steam rage together in the magma’s last dying gasps. Another formation method is by alteration of minerals such as beryl, and precipitation from in veins.


It was discovered in Saxony in 1828 and named after a local mining official (a bit like Goethite was named after another better known mining official, this time from Weimar, see http://bit.ly/2aVMCHNfor a biopic). The hydroxy was added when this variant was discovered in 1894, and most specimens labelled Herderite are in fact this version.


Locations include Brazil, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Italy, Namibia, Russia, Spain, England and the USA, though this pair rare purple specimens sitting on blue topaz (7.5 x 6.0 x 4.5 cm , see http://bit.ly/2jQ7sB0 for topaz) was mined in the Minas Gerais province of Brazil.


Loz


Image credit: Joe Budd/ Rob Lavinsky/iRocks.com


http://www.mindat.org/min-1962.html

http://bit.ly/2aDZYrQ


lupine_travel The bubbling Gobustan Mud Volcanoes in Azerbaijan…

lupine_travel The bubbling Gobustan Mud Volcanoes in Azerbaijan…





A post shared by Lupine Travel (@lupine_travel) on






lupine_travel The bubbling Gobustan Mud Volcanoes in Azerbaijan on our September tour today



Phantom Limb

Phantom Limb

NASA – Cassini International logo.


Sept. 25, 2017



The brightly lit limb of a crescent Enceladus looks ethereal against the blackness of space. The rest of the moon, lit by light reflected from Saturn, presents a ghostly appearance.


Enceladus (313 miles or 504 kilometers across) is back-lit in this image, as is apparent by the thin crescent. However, the Sun-Enceladus-spacecraft (or phase) angle, at 141 degrees, is too low to make the moon’s famous plumes easily visible.


This view looks toward the Saturn-facing hemisphere of Enceladus. North on Enceladus is up. The above image is a composite of images taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on March 29, 2017, using filters that allow infrared, green, and ultraviolet light. The image filter centered on 930 nm (IR) was is red in this image, the image filter centered on the green is green, and the image filter centered on 338 nm (UV) is blue.


The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 110,000 miles (180,000 kilometers) from Enceladus. Image scale is 0.6 miles (1 kilometer) per pixel.


The Cassini mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.


For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit https://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov and https://www.nasa.gov/cassini. The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org and ESA’s website: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Cassini-Huygens


Image, Text, Credits: NASA/Tony Greicius/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute.


Best regards, Orbiter.ch


Ученые переписали историю освоения Африки

Ученые переписали историю освоения Африки










График демографического разнообразия Африки




ДНК 16 человек, которые жили на территории Африки около 8500 лет назад, помогло переписать историю континента и пролить свет на происхождение людей. Полученные данные показывают, что человеческие популяции жили на континенте между 8000 и 1000 годами ранее.

 


И, вопреки распространенному мнению, ученые предположили, будто самая ранняя диверсификация современных людей произошла на западе Африки, хотя точные даты неясны.
На графике, который иллюстрирует новость, показано древнее демографическое разнообразие Африки, основанное на генетических данных, доступных ученых.


Они обнаружили, что население Восточной Европы распространилось на Восточную Африку не менее 3100 лет назад. В то же время в Западной Африке произошло еще одно расширение, связанное с сельским хозяйством.


По словам старшего автора исследования Дэвида Рейха, древняя ДНК смогла обеспечить необычный взгляд на историю человечества, в основном на евразийском континенте. В их распоряжении была древняя ДНК для ответа на вопросы об африканской предыстории. Им повезло, что коллеги по археологии были заинтересованы в работе и имели подходящие образцы.


Чтобы восстановить структуру населения Африки до распространения продуктов питания, исследователи секвенировали ДНК древних африканцев к югу от Сахары. Выборка включала трех человек с западного мыса Южной Африки, датированных 2300-1200 лет назад, а также 12 человек из восточной и юго-центральной Африки.


12 наборов ДНК включали четыре экземпляра с прибрежного района Кении и Танзании, которые относятся к периоду 1400-400 лет тому нахад, один – из внутренней Танзании возрастом около 3100 лет, семь из Малави в пределах от 8100 до 2500 лет. Ограниченность выборки связана с тем, что получить древнюю ДНК с континента сложно.


Все эти ДНК ученые объединили с ранее полученными данными с эфиопского высокогорья, датирующиеся примерно 4500 лет назад. Для сравнения команда включила данные 584 современных африканских людей из 59 разных групп населения и 300 геномов с высоким уровнем охвата из 142 популяций по всему миру.


По словам Райха, это не первое исследование древней ДНК из Африки, но оно умножает в десять раз количество образцов, изучаемых на континенте. И уже есть ряд потрясающих новых результатов.


Древняя ДНК с африканского континента похожа на древнюю ДНК людей, живущих в тех же местах, где найдены кости. Но были некоторые интересные исключения, которые проливают свет на смешение между различными группами.


Например, анализ генома показал, что население, относящееся к коренным народам юга Африки, более широко берет свои корни в прошлом. Эти гены южноафриканского типа встречаются у охотников-собирателей из Малави и Танзании на востоке Африки. Эти охотники жили между 8100 и 1400 годами.


Ученые обнаружили, что позднее распространение фермеров из Западной Африки существенно повлияло на ранние популяции охотников и собирателей, некоторые из которых были полностью заменены. Исследователи определили конкретные гены, которые, возможно, были ключевыми для людей, чтобы адаптироваться к образу жизни охотников собирателей в южной части Африки.


Они обнаружили доказательства прошлого отбора генов для рецепторов вкуса, которые важны, чтобы избегать ядовитых растений. Адаптивная эволюция заметна среди коренных жителей, проживающих в пустыне Калахари на юге Африки, в генах, участвующих в реакции на ультрафиолетовое излучение от солнца.


Понимание прошлого геномного разнообразия может не только восстановить неписанную историю, но и вести медицинские генетические исследования различных популяций.


По словам ведущего автора исследования доктора Понтуса Скоглунда, полученные ими результаты документируют доисторический ландшафт населения, о котором мы не знали. Сейчас команда планирует использовать древнюю ДНК для изучения истории древнего населения в Африке и во всем мире.



На берегу Малого моря обнаружено множество человеческих...

На берегу Малого моря обнаружено множество человеческих...









На малом море в районе мыса Уюга иркутские археологи из ИрНИТУ обнаружили человеческие захоронения эпохи неолита.


Примерно четыре года назад в этом районе туристы случайно наткнулись на человеческие кости. Летом 2017 года учёные отправились туда с экспедицией. К их удивлению и счастью, они обнаружили останки людей, проживающих на берегу Байкала в эпоху неолита, то есть 7,5 тысяч лет назад. Это время также называют эпохой раннего бронзового века.



«Количество туристов, желающих сфотографироваться на мысе Уюга, с каждым годом возрастает. Из-за неиссякаемого потока людей почвенный покров мыса истощается, и это ведет к обнажению каменных надмогильных конструкций и скелетов», – объясняет участник экспедиции, доцент кафедры истории и философии ИрНИТУ Дмитрий Кичигин.


Всего археологи исследовали территорию площадью 140 квадратных метров. На этом участке они обнаружили 10 погребений с 11 человеческими скелетами.


Также, кроме останков человека, были найдены фрагменты хайтинской керамики (считается самым древним изделием в Прибайкалье), кольца из светлого нефрита, кальцита, костяные иглы, подвески из клыков марала, пастовые бусины, множество разноцветных галек.


Теперь учёным предстоит проанализировать всё найденное, определить половую принадлежность скелетов.



На дне Черного моря нашли 60 затонувших кораблей

На дне Черного моря нашли 60 затонувших кораблей



























На дне Черного моря нашли 60 затонувших судов в возрасте до 2,5 тыс. лет, включая галеры Римской, Византийской и Османской империй.



Ученые наткнулись на кладбище у побережья Болгарии, исследуя последствия изменения климата с помощью подводных роботов, сообщает Daily Mail. Поскольку на дне Черного моря почти нет света или кислорода, это означает, что затонувшие в результате кораблекрушений судна находятся в отличном состоянии.



“Некоторые из обнаруженных кораблей мы раньше видели только на фресках и мозаиках. Например, одно средневековое торговое судно, где сохранились башни на носу и корме. Когда мы увидели это, то было ощущение, будто смотрели кино с кораблями”, – говорит Эд Паркер, генеральный директор компании BlackSeaMAP, участвующий в поисках.


Резьба по дереву некоторых кораблей оставалась нетронутой на протяжении веков, а на борту 2000-летнего римского судна обнаружили даже хорошо сохранившийся канат. Команда собирается продолжить исследования акватории болгарского побережья Черного моря в поисках раритетов.


Исследователи обнаружили более 40 обломков в 2-х предыдущих экспедициях, а во время их последней поездки, которая длилась несколько недель и завершилась в сентябре, они обнаружили около 20 новых мест кораблекрушений. Исследователи использовали два дистанционно управляемых транспортных средства (ROV) для обзора морского дна.



В среду, 27 сентября, в Музее археологии и этнографии ЧелГУ...

В среду, 27 сентября, в Музее археологии и этнографии ЧелГУ...


В среду, 27 сентября, в Музее археологии и этнографии ЧелГУ состоится торжественное открытие выставки «От Петровки до Степного: 40 лет археологической экспедиции ЧелГУ».
На выставке представят подлинные и редкие экспонаты, иллюстрирующие историю экспедиции: от истоков до перспектив. Все желающие увидят новейшие артефакты, поступившие в Музей из археологических раскопок и разведок последних лет.
«Предметы из поселения Аркаим, бронзовые ножи и серпы, каменные орудия, металлургические шлаки и другие индивидуальные находки с последних раскопанных памятников мы ещё нигде не показывали широкой аудитории. На выставке все это будет», – рассказала корреспонденту агентства «Урал-пресс-информ» научный сотрудник Заповедника «Аркаим» и хранитель фондов музея ЧелГУ Надежда Малая.
Оригинал материала
Урал-Пресс-Информ
http://uralpress.ru/


The Daredevil Spacecraft That Will Touch the Sun

The Daredevil Spacecraft That Will Touch the Sun

In the summer of 2018, we’re launching Parker Solar Probe, a spacecraft that will get closer to the Sun than any other in human history.


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Parker Solar Probe will fly directly through the Sun’s atmosphere, called the corona. Getting better measurements of this region is key to understanding our Sun. For instance, the Sun releases a constant outflow of solar material, called the solar wind. We think the corona is where this solar wind is accelerated out into the solar system, and Parker Solar Probe’s measurements should help us pinpoint how that happens.  


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The solar wind, along with other changing conditions on the Sun and in space, can affect Earth and are collectively known as space weather. Space weather can trigger auroras, create problems with satellites, cause power outages (in extreme cases), and disrupt our communications signals. That’s because space weather interacts with Earth’s upper atmosphere, where signals like radio and GPS travel from place to place.


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Parker Solar Probe is named after pioneering physicist Gene Parker. In the 1950s, Parker proposed a number of concepts about how stars — including our Sun — give off energy. He called this cascade of energy the solar wind. Parker also theorized an explanation for the superheated solar atmosphere, the corona, which is hotter than the surface of the Sun itself.


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Getting the answers to our questions about the solar wind and the Sun’s energetic particles is only possible by sending a probe right into the furnace of the Sun’s corona, where the spacecraft can reach 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit. Parker Solar Probe and its four suites of instruments – studying magnetic and electric fields, energetic particles, and the solar wind – will be protected from the Sun’s enormous heat by a 4.5-inch-thick carbon-composite heat shield.


Over the course of its seven-year mission, Parker Solar Probe will make two dozen close approaches to the Sun, continuously breaking its own records and sending back unprecedented science data.


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Getting close to the Sun is harder than you might think, since the inertia of a spacecraft launched from Earth will naturally carry it in repeated orbits on roughly the same path. To nudge the orbit closer to the Sun on successive trips, Parker Solar Probe will use Venus’ gravity.


This is a technique called a gravity assist, and it’s been used by Voyager, Cassini, and OSIRIS-REx, among other missions. Though most missions use gravity assists to speed up, Parker Solar Probe is using Venus’ gravity to slow down. This will let the spacecraft fall deeper into the Sun’s gravity and get closer to our star than any other spacecraft in human history.


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You can get a behind-the-scenes at Parker Solar Probe under construction in a clean room at facebook.com/NASASunScience today (Sept. 25) at 1:45 PM EDT.


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Keep up with all the latest on Parker Solar Probe at nasa.gov/solarprobe or on Twitter @NASASun.


Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.


Terracotta bell-krater (mixing bowl) by Pisticci Painter, Greek…

Terracotta bell-krater (mixing bowl) by Pisticci Painter, Greek…


Terracotta bell-krater (mixing bowl) by Pisticci Painter, Greek and Roman Art


Medium: Terracotta


Purchase by subscription, 1896

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/246575


Редкие кристаллы

Редкие кристаллы

 


ТАМТаяМиг Камни исполнения Желаний жидкий Тьмы кристалл Тёмный жидкий кристалл, работающий на всех направлениях
ТАМТаяМиг Камни исполнения Желаний жидкий Тьма кристалл Тёмный жидкий кристалл, работающий на всех направлениях

Камни исполняющие Желания



Кальцит Местность Irai, Альто Уругвай область, Рио-Гранде-ду-Сул, Южный регион, Бразилия Размер 13,4 х 10,5 х 6,5 см Фото t © Роб Лавински / iRocks

 


сколецит
сколецит

Турмалин

Турмалин с дымчатым кварцем и лепидолитовым
Турмалин с дымчатым кварцем и лепидолитовым

турмалин Malysha, Pamir, Tajikistan

Турмалин «канделябр» Добывали в 1972 году Билл Ларсон, он теперь на всеобщее обозрение в Смитсоновском институте в Вашингтоне, округ Колумбия. Фото Copyright © Harold & Erica Van Pelt

 


Агат радужный или ирис. Фото Copyright © Паскаль Пети / Flickr

Агат радужный или Ирис, фотография Уоррен Крюпсо

Iris or rainbow agate. This translucent form of agate (meaning…



Редкий голубой галит на сильвит  Местность Intrepid калийная East Mine, Карлсбад, Нью – Мексико, США  Размер 3 х 2 х 2 см Фото © Spirifer Minerals

Чистовой натуральный изумруд кристалл  Местность Muzo-Ла Пита горная область.   Фото © Гонсало Джара

Ванадинит на Барит. Местность ACF Mine;, Mibladen Горный район, Midelt, провинция Кенитра, Мекнес-Тафилалет область, Марокко (включая Coud’a вал Coudia вал.)

Флюорит Местность Аннабель Ли Mine, Иллинойс

Гаюин и Фторапатит – Laach озеро Вулканический комплекс, Эйфель, Германия

Emerald фотография © C.Gemtec

Арлекин Кварц

 


Желтый Бриллиант

 


Azurite Rose Кристалл Азурит в форме розы

 


Аметист Геод

Формирование пористых кристаллов, наблюдается в первый раз


Formation of porous crystals observed for the first…



Аметист Кактус . Южная Африка

Koroit Gem Opal орех

Mexican Opal в матрице Поле зрения: 8,2 мм, Глубина резкости: 5,35 мм

Аметист скипетр из Австралии/ Фото © Патрик Гандерсон

Аметист из Австралии Фото © Патрик Гандерсен

Азурит Затерянное озеро Претензия, Nacimiento Mine, Сан-Пабло, Сандовал Каунти, штат Нью-Мексико, США Размер 3,2 х 2,9 х 1,5 см

Стеклянный кулон со львом. Период поздний императорский. Дата IV-V вв. Культура Роман. Стекло штампованное. Размеры— Диаметр 13/16 дюйма (2,1 см). Классификация Стекло. Кредитная линия Завещание Мэри Анна Палмер Дрейпер, 1915

 


Очень редкий Blue Dot Chrysocolla | #Geology #GeologyPage #Mineral Местность: Рэй Mine в Аризоне Размер: 17мм х 27мм (1-1 / 16 “) и толщина 5.2mm

 


 


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