суббота, 23 сентября 2017 г.

Navigating the Brain Our brains are unique and incredibly…

Navigating the Brain Our brains are unique and incredibly…


Navigating the Brain


Our brains are unique and incredibly complex, constantly forming and establishing neural connections that control and monitor an array of bodily functions, such as speech and movement. When we perform such functions, different areas of our brain become active, which we can study using a variety of neuroimaging tools. Scientists have now created a database of 10 individual brain maps that can be used as a resource by neuroscientists around the world. Pictured is one such map correlating brain areas with activity, created using functional MRI and resting-state functional connectivity scans while they were performing cognitive tasks and resting, respectively. The brain maps created are highly detailed and individualised, showcasing neural brain connections and their organisation. Adding to this database in the future will mean a more diverse sample of individual functional brain architecture, which could help shed further light on our body’s most complex organ.


Written by Katie Panteli



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Giza pyramid complex, b/w photo, Egypt, 1959.

Giza pyramid complex, b/w photo, Egypt, 1959.


Giza pyramid complex, b/w photo, Egypt, 1959.


Pendant, Ancient Near Eastern ArtMedium: AgateRogers Fund,…

Pendant, Ancient Near Eastern ArtMedium: AgateRogers Fund,…


Pendant, Ancient Near Eastern Art


Medium: Agate


Rogers Fund, 1934

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/323068


met-modern-art: Viola Nadelman as a Bride by Paul-César Helleu,…

met-modern-art: Viola Nadelman as a Bride by Paul-César Helleu,…


met-modern-art:



Viola Nadelman as a Bride by Paul-César Helleu, Modern and Contemporary Art


Medium: Colored etching


Bequest of Lincoln Kirstein, 1996

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/486761



Seated female, Ancient Near Eastern ArtMedium: Steatite or…

Seated female, Ancient Near Eastern ArtMedium: Steatite or…


Seated female, Ancient Near Eastern Art


Medium: Steatite or chlorite, alabaster


Gift of Norbert Schimmel Trust, 1989

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/329073


Градовые реки в Теруэле ( Испания, 22.09.2017)…

Градовые реки в Теруэле ( Испания, 22.09.2017)…

Градовые реки в Теруэле ( Испания, 22.09.2017)


Neptune ♆On this day in 1846 was discovered the planet…

Neptune ♆On this day in 1846 was discovered the planet…











Neptune ♆


On this day in 1846 was discovered the planet Neptune.


The ice giant Neptune was the first planet located through mathematical predictions rather than through regular observations of the sky. (Galileo had recorded it as a fixed star during observations with his small telescope in 1612 and 1613.) When Uranus didn’t travel exactly as astronomers expected it to, a French mathematician, Urbain Joseph Le Verrier, proposed the position and mass of another as yet unknown planet that could cause the observed changes to Uranus’ orbit. After being ignored by French astronomers, Le Verrier sent his predictions to Johann Gottfried Galle at the Berlin Observatory, who found Neptune on his first night of searching in 1846. Seventeen days later, its largest moon, Triton, was also discovered.


Neptune is invisible to the naked eye because of its extreme distance from Earth. Interestingly, the highly eccentric orbit of the dwarf planet Pluto brings Pluto inside Neptune’s orbit for a 20-year period out of every 248 Earth years. Pluto can never crash into Neptune, though, because for every three laps Neptune takes around the Sun, Pluto makes two. This repeating pattern prevents close approaches of the two bodies.



  • Nearly 4.5 billion kilometers (2.8 billion miles) from the Sun, Neptune orbits the Sun once every 165 years. 

  • Uranus’ blue-green color is also the result of atmospheric methane, but Neptune is a more vivid, brighter blue, so there must be an unknown component that causes the more intense color. 

  • Despite its great distance and low energy input from the Sun, Neptune’s winds can be three times stronger than Jupiter’s and nine times stronger than Earth’s.

  • Winds on Neptune travel faster than the speed of sound.

  • In 1989, Voyager 2 tracked a large, oval-shaped, dark storm in Neptune’s southern hemisphere. This “Great Dark Spot” was large enough to contain the entire Earth.

  • Neptune has five known rings. Voyager 2’s observations confirmed that these unusual rings are not uniform but have four thick regions (clumps of dust) called arcs. The rings are thought to be relatively young and short-lived.

  • Neptune has 14 known moons, six of which were discovered by Voyager 2.

  • Triton, Neptune’s largest moon, orbits the planet in the opposite direction compared with the rest of the moons, suggesting that it may have been captured by Neptune in the distant past. 


To know more about the planet Neptune click here and here.


Images credit: NASA/JPL- Caltech (some images processed by Kevin M. Gill)


Astronomy & Astrophysics


КРУПНЫЙ ГРАД В ЖИТОМИРСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ (УКРАИНА)В городе...

КРУПНЫЙ ГРАД В ЖИТОМИРСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ (УКРАИНА)В городе...











КРУПНЫЙ ГРАД В ЖИТОМИРСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ (УКРАИНА)


В городе Бердичев на Житомирщине 23 сентября объявили чрезвычайную ситуацию местного уровня из-за повреждения жилых домов градом, сообщает пресс-служба Государственной службы Украины по чрезвычайным ситуациям.
По данным местных властей, в результате ненастья были повреждены кровли 1950 частных домов. Также капитального ремонта или замены требуют крыши 6 школ и 4 детских дошкольных учебных заведений. Ориентировочная стоимость причиненного ущерба превышает 6,4 млн грн.
Спасатели уже приступили к аварийно-восстановительным работам.Как сообщалось ранее, град размером с гусиное яйцо в четверг вечером повредил дома и автомобили на Житомирщине.


КРУПНЫЙ ГРАД В ВИННИЦКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ (УКРАИНА)Град размером с...

КРУПНЫЙ ГРАД В ВИННИЦКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ (УКРАИНА)Град размером с...









КРУПНЫЙ ГРАД В ВИННИЦКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ (УКРАИНА)


Град размером с куриное яйцо повредил более 600 зданий в Винницкой области Украины, сообщает Вiнниця.info.
По предварительным оценкам, пятиминутный град в Крыжопольском районе нанес ущерб на сумму более 8 млн грн. В этой сумме учтены лишь повреждения домов. Местные власти продолжают подсчитывать убытки.
Как отметили в Крыжопольской РГА, наиболее серьезно от града пострадали села Красноселка, Голубече, Терновка и часть самого Крыжополя. Развернут оперативный штаб.
Во власти непогоды оказалась также Казатинский и Тульчинский районы, где выпал град размером с грецкий орех. К счастью, из людей никто не пострадал.


Bowl, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the AmericasMedium: Ceramic,…

Bowl, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the AmericasMedium: Ceramic,…


Bowl, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas


Medium: Ceramic, pigment


Gift of Arthur M. Bullowa, 1989

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/315734


Double-End Snake Bottle, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the…

Double-End Snake Bottle, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the…


Double-End Snake Bottle, Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas


Medium: Ceramic, pigment


Gift of Nathan Cummings, 1963

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/307863


met-drawings-prints: Design for Three Panels for a Library by…

met-drawings-prints: Design for Three Panels for a Library by…


met-drawings-prints:



Design for Three Panels for a Library by Giovanni Battista Cipriani, Drawings and Prints


Medium: Pen and brown ink, brush and grey wash


Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1934

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/362995



Pendant for Horse Trappings, Arms and ArmorMedium: Copper alloy,…

Pendant for Horse Trappings, Arms and ArmorMedium: Copper alloy,…


Pendant for Horse Trappings, Arms and Armor


Medium: Copper alloy, enamel, gold


Rogers Fund, 1904

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/22007


met-european-sculpture: Snuffbox by Doccia manufactory,…

met-european-sculpture: Snuffbox by Doccia manufactory,…


met-european-sculpture:



Snuffbox by Doccia manufactory, European Sculpture and Decorative Arts


Medium: Hard-paste porcelain, gold


The Jack and Belle Linsky Collection, 1982

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/207209



Four Lance Heads for the Tournament, Arms and ArmorMedium:…

Four Lance Heads for the Tournament, Arms and ArmorMedium:…


Four Lance Heads for the Tournament, Arms and Armor


Medium: Steel


14.25.439: Gift of William H. Riggs, 1913; 42.50.38–.40: Gift of Stephen V. Grancsay, 1942 Gift of Stephen V. Grancsay, 1942

42.50.38–.40

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/35791


Северное сияние вблизи города Вестрахорн, Исландия.Вечер 14...

Северное сияние вблизи города Вестрахорн, Исландия.Вечер 14...


Северное сияние вблизи города Вестрахорн, Исландия.
Вечер 14 сентября 2017.


© Christophe Suarez‏


Ткани древних римлян и древних греков...

Ткани древних римлян и древних греков...







Ткани древних римлян и древних греков различались
Британские ученые выяснили, что ткани, изготовленные в первой половине 1 века до нашей эры в Греции и Риме различались по составу и структуре. Исследование было опубликовано в журнале Antiquity.
Текстиль среди археологических находок встречается нечасто, особенно в Средиземноморской Европе, где климатические условия неблагоприятны для сохранения органических материалов. Тем не менее иногда фрагменты ткани сохраняются в окаменевшем виде. Детальный анализ нескольких сотен таких текстильных фрагментов помог понять, какие ткани изготавливались в Италии и Греции в 1000-500 годы до нашей эры.
Исследователи из Кембриджского университета изучили куски ткани, сохранившиеся на человеческих захоронениях железного века, когда в могилу умершего помещали множество металлических украшений, оружия и сосудов. Металл способствуют сохранению ткани, так как уничтожает микроорганизмы, которые поглотили бы органические волокна, а соли металлов формируют на волокнах своеобразный налет, позволяющий сохраниться текстильной микроструктуре.
В ходе работы частички ткани проанализировали при помощи цифровой и сканирующей электронной микроскопии, высокоэффективной жидкостной хроматографии и других методов, благодаря которым ученые могли узнать характер сырья и структурные особенности тканей, например, тип плетения и количество нитей.
Текстиль, найденный в Италии, больше напоминал находки из Центральной Европы. Исследователи отнесли их к гальштатской культуре, распространенной на территориях современной Германии, Австрии и Словении, а текстильная культура Греции уходила корнями в ближневосточную.
Авторы работы обращают внимание на то, что во времена расцвета Римской империи возникновение греческих колоний в южной Италии и влияние восточной культуры приводят к постепенному исчезновению традиционной текстильной традиции. В дальнейшем ученые собираются выяснить, в чем причина этого изменения текстильной культуры.
Источники
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/antiquity/article/tracing-textile-cultures-of-italy-and-greece-in-the-early-first-millennium-bc/642F7FC36D2E140DA6ADFE9BFF663F1B/core-reader
Tracing textile cultures of Italy and Greece in the early first millennium BC | Antiquity | Cambridg
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/antiquity/article/tracing-textile-cultures-of-italy-and-greece-in-the-early-first-millennium-bc/642F7FC36D2E140DA6ADFE9BFF663F1B
Ткани древних римлян и древних греков различались
https://indicator.ru/news/2017/09/22/tkani-drevnih-rimlyan-grekov/?utm_medium=source&utm_source=rnews


lattrapecoeurs:Gran Canaria (2017)

lattrapecoeurs:Gran Canaria (2017)


lattrapecoeurs:



Gran Canaria (2017)



Slot Canyons These fantastical landforms are the result of…

Slot Canyons These fantastical landforms are the result of…


Slot Canyons


These fantastical landforms are the result of flash flooding, usually in arid areas. Water gushes through the weak points in the rock when the occasional downpours happen, gradually eroding these deep narrow canyons. They can be as narrow as a metre for a 30 m depth. One of the most famous on Earth is the Siq (see http://bit.ly/2uIfSxL), that leads to the ancient Nabatean city of Petra in Jordan. They are usually carved into sedimentary rocks, especially sandstone.

Fjord panorama, Lofoten Islands, Norway

Fjord panorama, Lofoten Islands, Norway




Fjord panorama, Lofoten Islands, Norway


Weekly Recap From the Expedition Lead Scientist, week of September 18, 2017

Weekly Recap From the Expedition Lead Scientist, week of September 18, 2017

ISS – Expedition 53 Mission patch.


Sept. 23, 2017


(Highlights: Week of September 18, 2017) – Crew members on the International Space Station wrapped up a low-temperature combustion investigation that was sparked by a discovery made during a previous run of experiments aboard the orbiting laboratory, and could help scientists develop new engines and fuels that are more efficient and less harmful to the environment.



Image above: The Zero Boil-OFF Tank (ZBOT) on the International Space Station has a large “ullage” bubble and several smaller bubbles around it. The experimental hardware uses an experimental fluid to test active heat removal and forced jet mixing as alternative means for controlling tank pressure for volatile fluids. Image Credit: NASA.


“Cool flames” were first discovered during the Flammability and Extinction (FLEX) study on the space station in 2013. The Cool Flames investigation followed in an effort to better understand this unique burning behavior. The final run of Cool Flames Investigation led to the dismantling and stowing of the hardware, bringing the operations for the study on the space station to a close. Data from the investigation will now be analyzed by Earth scientists. Some types of fuels initially burn very hot, then appear to go out — but they continue burning at a much lower temperature with no visible flames. These phenomena are called cool flames. The Cool Flames Investigation provides new insight into this phenomenon, as well as new data on fire safety in space.


The Advanced Research Thermal Passive Exchange (ARTE) investigation was also completed. This new heat pipe design reduces the weight of thermal systems while also increasing their efficiency. Scientists want to evaluate the performance of the ARTE heat pipes to keep the overall mass low and save on energy. We won’t have to actively cool some areas with a fan, or actively heat other areas. If successful, this highly conductive pipe could be integrated into future spacecraft, aircraft of supercomputer systems on Earth.



Image above: NASA astronaut Randy Bresnik conducts a study into muscle atrophy on the International Space Station. He conducted an ultrasound on his calf muscle while exercising using a mechanism created by ESA. Image Credit: NASA.


As ARTE completed a heating investigation, the Zero Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) study was working on better ways to regulate cryogenic fluid or gas. Rocket fuel, spacecraft heating and cooling systems and sensitive scientific instruments rely on very cold cryogenic fluids. Heat from the environment around the cryogenic tanks can cause their pressures to rise, which requires releasing or “boiling off” fluid to release the excess pressure, or actively cooling the tanks in some way. ZBOT uses an experimental fluid to test active heat removal to control tank pressure for volatile fluids.


Cryogenic tanks require complicated storage and flow solutions for fluids that act as both liquid and gas, depending on their temperatures. Results from this investigation into phase change and heat transport will provide data that could improve models used to design lightweight, efficient, and long-duration cryogenic storage in space for fuel tanks and engines, but can also help in the development of storage facilities in laboratories and other industries on Earth.



Image above: ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli works on packing the SpaceX-Dragon cargo craft, which returned to Earth this week, returning a variety of technological and biological research. Image Credit: NASA.


NASA astronaut Randy Bresnik , ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Paolo Nespoli and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy participated in research into muscle atrophy in space with the Myotendinous and Neuromuscular Adaptation to Long-term Spaceflight (Sarcolab-3) study involving the Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES). This investigation studies the adaptation and deterioration of the soleus, or calf muscle, where it joins the Achilles tendon, which links it to the heel and carries loads from the entire body. Muscle fiber samples are taken from crew members before and after flight and analyzed for changes in structural or chemical properties. MRI and ultrasound tests and electrode stimulation are conducted to help assess muscle and tendon changes caused by microgravity exposure.



Space to Ground: Busy Crew: 09/22/2017

Video above: NASA’s Space to Ground is a weekly update on what is happening on the International Space Station. Social media users can post with #spacetoground to ask questions or make a comment. Video Credit: NASA.


By understanding the mechanisms behind loss of muscle mass in space, scientists can develop countermeasures that are more effective for the crews — pharmacological, dietary or exercise-based – and maintain or improve the health and performance of astronauts in orbit. Scientists also can gain insight into certain muscular conditions on Earth. Solutions developed for astronauts could be used for rehabilitation of patients with a variety of muscular conditions.



International Space Station (ISS). Image Credit: NASA

Progress was made on other investigations this week, including: Tropical Cyclone, Combustion Integration Rack (CIR), Long Duration Sorbent Testbed (LDST), Marrow, Actiwatch, Dosetracker, ACME, Fine Motor Skills, FIR LMM, Rodent Research-9, and Lighting Effects.


Related links:


Cool Flames investigation: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1947.html


Advanced Research Thermal Passive Exchange (ARTE): http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1911.html


Zero Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1270.html


Sarcolab-3: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/738.html


Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES): http://blogs.esa.int/iriss/2015/09/07/the-mares-machine/


Tropical Cyclone: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1973.html


Combustion Integration Rack (CIR): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/326.html


Long Duration Sorbent Testbed (LDST): http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/long_duration_sorbent_testbed


Marrow: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1931.html


Dosetracker: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1933.html


ACME: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1908.html


Fine Motor Skills: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1767.html


FIR: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/360.html


LMM: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/541.html


Rodent Research-9: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/2440.html


Lighting Effects: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/2279.html


Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html


International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html


Images (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Kristine Rainey/John Love, Lead Increment Scientist Expeditions 53 & 54.


Best regards, Orbiter.ch


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