пятница, 22 сентября 2017 г.

Водяной смерч у побережья Дейтона-Бич ( Флорида, США,...

Водяной смерч у побережья Дейтона-Бич ( Флорида, США,...







Водяной смерч у побережья Дейтона-Бич ( Флорида, США, 22.09.2017)


Антропологи узнали, чем маленькие неандертальцы...

Антропологи узнали, чем маленькие неандертальцы...



Антропологи узнали, чем маленькие неандертальцы отличались от человеческих детей
Маленькие неандертальцы росли так же, как дети Homo sapiens, за несколькими незначительными исключениями. К такому выводу пришел испанский антрополог Антонио Росас (Antonio Rosas), изучив детский скелет из испанской пещеры Эль Сидрон.
В неандертальском ребенке, умершем 49 тысяч лет назад в возрасте 7,5 лет, было 26 килограммов веса и 111 см роста. Генетический анализ не позволил определить пол, однако плотность костей и другие косвенные признаки указывают на то, что это был мальчик. Прекрасно сохранившиеся зубы (30 шт), в том числе и молочные, позволили сделать вывод о том, что маленький неандерталец помогал взрослым в серьезной работе: возможно, скоблил шкуры руками, удерживая их в зубах, или просто питался твердой волокнистой пищей, требующей долгого пережевывания. А недостаток эмали на зубах позволил заключить, что мальчик недоедал или болел. Полоски от крепления мышщ, более заметные на правой плечевой кости, указывают на то, что ребенок был правшой.
Только не до конца сформировавшийся позвоночник отличает скелет семилетнего неандертальца от скелета его сверстника – нашего современника. Росас предполагает, что причиной этому – большой мозг неандертальцев. Мозг – очень энергозатратный орган, и детеныши видов с очень вместительным черепом растут, как правило, очень медленно. Возможно, огромный мозг неандертальцев (в среднем на 15% больше мозга современного человека) потреблял так много ресурсов во время активного роста, что связки между позвонками, которые и у человека разумного завершают рост в последнюю очередь, у маленьких неандертальцев окончательно формировались еще позже.
Исследование опубликовано в журнале Science.
Источники
The growth pattern of Neandertals, reconstructed from a juvenile skeleton from El Sidrón (Spain) http://science.sciencemag.org/content/357/6357/1282
Автор: Сергей Васильев
https://naked-science.ru/


maggiegonzalesart: Album art I made for my friend’s band Joe…

maggiegonzalesart: Album art I made for my friend’s band Joe…


maggiegonzalesart:



Album art I made for my friend’s band Joe Elegant!



Continued excavations of the Minoan Neopalatial complex at Sissi, Crete

Continued excavations of the Minoan Neopalatial complex at Sissi, Crete


A team of the Université Catholique de Louvain under the auspices of the Ephorate of Antiquities of Lasithi and the Belgian School at Athens, aided by experts and students from many Greek and foreign universities, continued the excavation of a monumental court-centered building on the Kephali-hill at Sissi (Lassithi, Crete) during the summer of 2017.











Continued excavations of the Minoan Neopalatial complex at Sissi, Crete
Aerial view of the court-centred complex at Sissi 
[Credit: © EBSA/N. Kress]

The entire complex largely dates to the Neopalatial period of the Minoan civilization, roughly the 16th c. BC, and was abandoned close in time to the Santorini eruption, ash of which was found within the building.


Started in 2015, we finally achieved the clearance of the plastered central court, which is seen to have a maximum size of 16.50 by 33 m.











Continued excavations of the Minoan Neopalatial complex at Sissi, Crete
Ritual Installations and paved corridor leading into court 
[Credit: © EBSA/J. Driessen]

Several ritual installations are found on and along this central court, which was directly accessible from the outside to the southwest via a finely paved corridor with ashlar walls.


The excavation further revealed large parts of the east and west wings of the complex; the latter also comprises a circular water-collecting basin with an associated subterranean cistern.











Continued excavations of the Minoan Neopalatial complex at Sissi, Crete
Fragments of ritual vase, probably a kernos, from the Central Court 
[Credit: © EBSA/Chronis Papanikolopoulos]

The excavation further identified an early phase of Mycenaean occupation (end of 15th c. BC) within the settlement while the exploration of the cemetery was continued.


Source: Belgian School at Athens [September 22, 2017]




TANN




Nymphaion in ancient city of Side undergoing restoration

Nymphaion in ancient city of Side undergoing restoration


Restoration and conversation is set to start again at the Monumental Fountain (Nymphaion) in the ancient city of Side in the southern Turkish province of Antalya.











Nymphaion in ancient city of Side undergoing restoration
The Nymphaion of Side [Credit: AA]

The Monumental Fountain dates back to the 2nd century AD and has undergone a series of restorations since 2004.


Antalya Surveying and Monuments Director Cemil Karabayram, who recently visited the ancient site, said only 20 percent of the restoration has so far been completed, but the work will be finished in the coming period.


Karabayram said a financial allocation for the project had been provided under the auspices of Culture and Tourism Minister Professor Numan Kurtulmuş, Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu and Antalya Governor Münir Karalıoğlu, and a tender will be initiated in the coming days.


He said there are a number of large stone blocks in the area, which have each been documented with a separate number, adding that the blocks and the arch structure at the front of the site will be placed on the upper columns.


Karabayram said the restoration team strongly suspects that new blocks will be found under the layer of soil right behind the fountain.


“Excavations will unearth these new blocks. I hope that we will make the fountain complete by finishing the work. Tourists will be able to enter the area and visit the fountain. Almost 12 million Turkish Liras have been allocated for the entire Side region and its monumental structures,” he added.


The restoration team plans to restore the pool system in front of the fountain to its original state, while the asphalt in the gate of the castle, which is located at the entrance of Side, will be removed.


Karabayram said the excavations at the ancient site of Side were first initiated by Professor Arif Müfit Mansel, whose words and articles about Side are very important.


“Mansel said a copy of this fountain was constructed in Italy by Italians. Of course this was a matter of debate but we are carrying out work for it. We are talking with art historians about this issue, and whether the fountain here was a source of inspiration for the fountain in Rome,” he added.


Karabayram also said some columns of the fountain have been preserved throughout history.


“All of these columns are original and new materials will never be used in the restoration. But some extra blocks could be placed in order to provide balance,” he added.


Source: Hurriyet Daily News [September 22, 2017]




TANN




Reconstructing how Neanderthals grew, based on an El Sidrón child

Reconstructing how Neanderthals grew, based on an El Sidrón child


How did Neanderthals grow? Does modern man develop in the same way as Homo neanderthalensis did? How does the size of the brain affect the development of the body? A study led by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) researcher, Antonio Rosas, has studied the fossil remains of a Neanderthal child’s skeleton in order to establish whether there are differences between the growth of Neanderthals and that of sapiens.











Reconstructing how Neanderthals grew, based on an El Sidrón child
Neanderthal children may have grown up as slowly as modern humans 
[Credit: © S.Plailly, E.Daynes/LookatSciences]

According to the results of the article, which are published in Science, both species regulate their growth differently to adapt their energy consumption to their physical characteristics.


“Discerning the differences and similarities in growth patterns between Neanderthals and modern humans helps us better define our own history. Modern humans and Neanderthals emerged from a common recent ancestor, and this is manifested in a similar overall growth rate,” explains CSIC researcher, Antonio Rosas, from Spain’s National Natural Science Museum (MNCN). As fellow CSIC researcher Luis Ríos highlights, “Applying paediatric growth assessment methods, this Neanderthal child is no different to a modern-day child.” The pattern of vertebral maturation and brain growth, as well as energy constraints during development, may have marked the anatomical shape of Neanderthals.


Neanderthals had a greater cranial capacity than today’s humans. Neanderthal adults had an intracranial volume of 1,520 cubic centimetres, while that of modern adult man is 1,195 cubic centimetres. That of the Neanderthal child in the study had reached 1,330 cubic centimetres at the time of his death, in other words, 87.5% of the total reached at eight years of age. At that age, the development of a modern-day child’s cranial capacity has already been fully completed.


“Developing a large brain involves significant energy expenditure and, consequently, this hinders the growth of other parts of the body. In sapiens, the development of the brain during childhood has a high energetic cost and, as a result, the development of the rest of the body slows down,” Rosas explains.


Neanderthals and sapiens


The cost, in terms of energy, of anatomical growth of the modern brain is unusually high, especially during breastfeeding and during infancy, and this seems to require a slowing down of body growth. The growth and development of this juvenile Neanderthal matches the typical characteristics of human ontogeny, where there is a slow anatomical growth between weaning and puberty. This could compensate for the immense energy cost of developing such a large brain.











Reconstructing how Neanderthals grew, based on an El Sidrón child
Skeleton of the Neanderthal boy recovered from the El Sidrón 
cave (Asturias, Spain) [Credit: Paleoanthropology Group 
MNCN-CSIC]

In fact, the skeleton and dentition of this Neanderthal present a physiology which is similar to that of a sapiens of the same age, except for the thorax area, which corresponds to a child between five and six years, in that it is less developed. “The growth of our Neanderthal child was not complete, probably due to energy saving,” explains CSIC researcher Antonio Rosas.


The only divergent aspect in the growth of both species is the moment of maturation of the vertebral column. In all hominids, the cartilaginous joints of the middle thoracic vertebrae and the atlas are the last to fuse, but in this Neanderthal, fusion occurred about two years later than in modern humans.


“The delay of this fusion in the vertebral column may indicate that Neanderthals had a decoupling of certain aspects in the transition from infancy to the juvenile phase. Although the implications are unknown, this feature could be related to the characteristic enlarged shape of the Neanderthal torso, or slower brain growth,” says Rosas.


The Neanderthal child


The protagonist of this study was 7.7 years old, weighed 26 kilos and measured 111 centimetres at the time of death. Although the genetic analyses failed to confirm the child’s sex, the canine teeth and the sturdiness of the bones showed that it to be a male. 138 pieces, 30 of them teeth (including some milk teeth), and part of the skeleton- including some fragments of the skull from the individual- identified as El Sidrón J1, have recovered.











Reconstructing how Neanderthals grew, based on an El Sidrón child
(Left to Right) Antonio García-Tabernero, Antonio Rosas and Luis Ríos beside the Neanderthal child’s skeleton 
[Credit: Andrés Díaz-CSIC Communications Department]

The researchers have been able to establish that our protagonist was right-handed and was already performing adult tasks, such as using his teeth as a third hand to handle skins and plant fibres. In addition, they know who his mother was, and that the child protagonist of this investigation had a younger brother in the group. Furthermore, this child was found to have suffered from enamel hypoplasia when he was two or three years old. Hypoplasia (white spots on the teeth, especially visible in the upper incisors), occurs when the teeth have less enamel than normal, the cause usually being malnutrition or disease.


Discovered in 1994, the El Sidrón cave, located in Piloña (in Asturias, northern Spain) has provided the best collection of Neanderthals that exists on the Iberian Peninsula. The team has recovered the remains of 13 individuals from the cave. The group consisted of seven adults (four women and three men), three teenagers and three younger children.


Previous studies have been carried out by a multidisciplinary team led by the paleoanthropologist Antonio Rosas (CSIC’s National Museum of Natural Sciences), the geneticist Carles Lalueza-Fox (Institute of Evolutionary Biology, run by CSIC and the Pompeu Fabra University) and by the archaeologist Marco de la Rasilla (University of Oviedo).


Source: Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) [September 22, 2017]




TANN




Облака мамматусы в Шаркаде ( Венгрия, 17.09.2017)…

Облака мамматусы в Шаркаде ( Венгрия, 17.09.2017)…


Облака мамматусы в Шаркаде ( Венгрия, 17.09.2017)


Золотая осень в разных странах мира…

Золотая осень в разных странах мира…











Золотая осень в разных странах мира


Sphinx, Baboon and Cat Statues Found in Ancient Egyptian Burial

Sphinx, Baboon and Cat Statues Found in Ancient Egyptian Burial

archaeologicalnews:




After years of being washed, perfumed and fed in ancient Egypt, the statue of a revered Egyptian deity was given a proper burial with other “dead” statues more than 2,000 years ago, a new study finds.


Ancient Egyptians buried the statue of the deity Ptah — the god of craftsmen and sculptors — with other revered statues, including those of a sphinx, baboon, cat, Osiris and Mut, in a pit next to Ptah’s temple.


The statue of Ptah had likely sat in the temple for years, but it and the other sacred objects were respectfully buried after they accumulated damage and were declared useless by the ancient Egyptians, the researchers said.


“We can consider that when a new statue was erected in the temple, this one [of Ptah] was set aside in a pit,” Read more.



The Great Hypostyle Hall, Temple of Amun, Karnak.

The Great Hypostyle Hall, Temple of Amun, Karnak.


The Great Hypostyle Hall, Temple of Amun, Karnak.


Figurine of Horus as a child. Late period, c.664-332 BC.Horus…

Figurine of Horus as a child. Late period, c.664-332 BC.Horus…



Figurine of Horus as a child. Late period, c.664-332 BC.


Horus was the child of the first royal couple, Osiris and Isis, every subsequent ruler of Egypt called himself or herself an incarnation of Horus to establish legitimacy. His hair is arranged with a side-lock and his finger is touching his mouth, both representations of childhood.


Bronze, dimensions: 10.8 x 2.5 x 5.1 cms.
Lowe Art Museum, University of Miami, Florida.


Pottery colored with Egyptian Blue from the burial chamber of…

Pottery colored with Egyptian Blue from the burial chamber of…


Pottery colored with Egyptian Blue from the burial chamber of Mentuhotep II in Deir el-Bahari. Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, ca. 2000 BC.
Luxor Museum of Ancient Art.


Archers of the army and military items, from a rare record of…

Archers of the army and military items, from a rare record of…


Archers of the army and military items, from a rare record of frescoes from Thebes, recorded 1819-1822, by Frédéric Cailliaud (1787-1869), on his second visit to Egypt.


ЛЕСНОЙ ПОЖАР В КРАСНОГРАДСКОМ РАЙОНЕ (ХАРЬКОВСКАЯ ОБЛАСТЬ,...

ЛЕСНОЙ ПОЖАР В КРАСНОГРАДСКОМ РАЙОНЕ (ХАРЬКОВСКАЯ ОБЛАСТЬ,...






ЛЕСНОЙ ПОЖАР В КРАСНОГРАДСКОМ РАЙОНЕ (ХАРЬКОВСКАЯ ОБЛАСТЬ, УКРАИНА)


В пятницу, 22 сентября, возник крупный пожар в Красноградском лесничестве Харьковской области в районе населенных пунктов Мартыновка, Наталино и Добренко. Выгорело уже 70 га леса, сообщает пресс-служба Государственной службы Украины по чрезвычайным ситуациям.
К месту происшествия направлены подразделения ГСЧС в количестве 26-ти отделений на автоцистернах. Из них 3 автоцистерны лесхоза, 2 автоцистерны и 2 единицы приспособленной для целей пожаротушения техники добровольных противопожарных формирований предприятий Красноградщины, а также 200 человек личного состава ГСЧС и 25 работников лесхоза. Также к месту пожара направлены 60 курсантов и 10 офицеров Национального университета гражданской защиты Украины.
Распространению огня способствует ветреная погода. В настоящее предпринимаются меры по предотвращению продвижения огня к населенным пунктам.


Halogen bonding-mediated metal-free controlled cationic…

Halogen bonding-mediated metal-free controlled cationic…


Halogen bonding-mediated metal-free controlled cationic polymerization



Chemists at the Nagoya Institute of Technology (NITech) report a metal-free method to control cationic polymerization that provides a new framework for higher quality industrial polymers applicable to semi-conductors and bio-materials. The reaction depends on weak halogen bonding and the addition of a small amount of ammonium salt to produce long, homogeneous polymers. The study can be read in Chemistry – A European Journal.


The polymer is synthesized by cationic polymerization, as an example, through a reaction process that along with the vinyl molecule requires the combination of a catalyst and an initiator called an initiating system.


“Metal halide catalysts are well studied in cationic polymerization, but they create impurities responsible for the coloration and degradation of polymers. There is high demand for metal-free initiating systems,” says Associate Professor Koji Takagi, who first-authored the study.


The challenge in cationic polymerization is to produce a long polymer that is homogeneous without adding metal-based catalysts. The role of the catalysts is to abstract an anion from the initiator, such as a halide, that reversibly interacts with the catalyst and the polymer propagating end. For this reason, weak bonding is preferred, as otherwise side effects can occur that compromise the homogeneity and size of produced polymers. In the new study, Takagi and his colleagues show that chloride makes the best halide, as it forms appropriately weak halogen bonds with a 2-iodoimidazolium catalyst.



Read more.


Mountains of Dust in the Carina Nebula | APOD Image…

Mountains of Dust in the Carina Nebula | APOD Image…


Mountains of Dust in the Carina Nebula

| APOD
Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Livio (STScI)


It’s stars versus dust in the Carina Nebula and the stars are winning. More precisely, the energetic light and winds from massive newly formed stars are evaporating and dispersing the dusty stellar nurseries in which they formed. Located in the Carina Nebula and known informally as Mystic Mountain, these pillar’s appearance is dominated by the dark dust even though it is composed mostly of clear hydrogen gas. Dust pillars such as these are actually much thinner than air and only appear as mountains due to relatively small amounts of opaque interstellar dust. About 7,500 light-years distant, the featured image was taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and highlights an interior region of Carina which spans about three light years. Within a few million years, the stars will likely win out completely and the entire dust mountain will evaporate.


Остров Барбуда через две недели после разрушительного...

Остров Барбуда через две недели после разрушительного...











Остров Барбуда через две недели после разрушительного урагана “Ирма”


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