пятница, 15 сентября 2017 г.

In step toward controlling chemistry, physicists create a new molecule, atom by atom

In step toward controlling chemistry, physicists create a new molecule, atom by atom

UCLA physicists have pioneered a method for creating a unique new molecule that could eventually have applications in medicine, food science and other fields. Their research, which also shows how chemical reactions can be studied on a microscopic scale using tools of physics, is reported in the journal Science.



For the past 200 years, scientists have developed rules to describe chemical reactions that they’ve observed, including reactions in food, vitamins, medications and living organisms. One of the most ubiquitous is the “octet rule,” which states that each atom in a molecule that is produced by a chemical reaction will have eight outer orbiting electrons. (Scientists have found exceptions to the rule, but those exceptions are rare.)


Cassini Mission: What’s Next?

Cassini Mission: What’s Next?

It’s Friday, Sept. 15 and our Cassini mission has officially come to a spectacular end. The final signal from the spacecraft was received here on Earth at 7:55 a.m. EDT after a fateful plunge into Saturn’s atmosphere.


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After losing contact with Earth, the spacecraft burned up like a meteor, becoming part of the planet itself.


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Although bittersweet, Cassini’s triumphant end is the culmination of a nearly 20-year mission that overflowed with discoveries.


But, what happens now?


Mission Team and Data


Now that the spacecraft is gone, most of the team’s engineers are migrating to other planetary missions, where they will continue to contribute to the work we’re doing to explore our solar system and beyond.


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Mission scientists will keep working for the coming years to ensure that we fully understand all of the data acquired during the mission’s Grand Finale. They will carefully calibrate and study all of this data so that it can be entered into the Planetary Data System. From there, it will be accessible to future scientists for years to come.


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Even beyond that, the science data will continue to be worked on for decades, possibly more, depending on the research grants that are acquired.


Other team members, some who have spent most of their career working on the Cassini mission, will use this as an opportunity to retire.


Future Missions


In revealing that Enceladus has essentially all the ingredients needed for life, the mission energized a pivot to the exploration of “ocean worlds” that has been sweeping planetary science over the past couple of decades.


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Jupiter’s moon Europa has been a prime target for future exploration, and many lessons during Cassini’s mission are being applied in planning our Europa Clipper mission, planned for launch in the 2020s.


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The mission will orbit the giant planet, Jupiter, using gravitational assists from large moons to maneuver the spacecraft into repeated close encounters, much as Cassini has used the gravity of Titan to continually shape the spacecraft’s course.


In addition, many engineers and scientists from Cassini are serving on the new Europa Clipper mission and helping to shape its science investigations. For example, several members of the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer team are developing an extremely sensitive, next-generation version of their instrument for flight on Europa Clipper. What Cassini has learned about flying through the plume of material spraying from Enceladus will be invaluable to Europa Clipper, should plume activity be confirmed on Europa.


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In the decades following Cassini, scientists hope to return to the Saturn system to follow up on the mission’s many discoveries. Mission concepts under consideration include robotic explorers to drift on the methane seas of Titan and fly through the Enceladus plume to collect and analyze samples for signs of biology.


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Atmospheric probes to all four of the outer planets have long been a priority for the science community, and the most recent recommendations from a group of planetary scientists shows interest in sending such a mission to Saturn. By directly sampling Saturn’s upper atmosphere during its last orbits and final plunge, Cassini is laying the groundwork for an potential Saturn atmospheric probe.


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A variety of potential mission concepts are discussed in a recently completed study — including orbiters, flybys and probes that would dive into Uranus’ atmosphere to study its composition. Future missions to the ice giants might explore those worlds using an approach similar to Cassini’s mission.


Learn more about the Cassini mission and its Grand Finale HERE.


Follow the mission on Facebook and Twitter for the latest updates.


Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.


“The flowering of early civilization in Egypt was the result of…

“The flowering of early civilization in Egypt was the result of…


“The flowering of early civilization in Egypt was the result of major transformations both in socio-political and economic organization and ideology. That such transformations were successful in the Early Dynastic Period is truly remarkable, given that contemporaneous polities elsewhere in the Near East were much smaller in territory and population. That this state was successful for a very long time—a total of about 800 years until the end of the Old Kingdom—is in part due to the enormous potential of cereal agriculture on the Nile floodplain, but it is also a result of Egyptian organizational skills and the strongly
developed institution of kingship.”


The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, by Ian Shaw


Egyptian room. Neues Museum, Berlin, Germany.

Egyptian room. Neues Museum, Berlin, Germany.


Egyptian room. Neues Museum, Berlin, Germany.


ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ УРАГАНА “МАКС” В МЕКСИКЕОдин человек...

ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ УРАГАНА “МАКС” В МЕКСИКЕОдин человек...









ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ УРАГАНА “МАКС” В МЕКСИКЕ


Один человек числится пропавшим без вести, 200 домов разрушены в населенном пункте Сан-Маркос в мексиканском штате Герреро в результате прохождения урагана “Макс”, сообщил в Twitter губернатор штата Эктор Астудильо.
Ранее Национальный центр США по предупреждению ураганов сообщил, что ураган “Макс” стремительно ослабевает по мере достижения территории южных мексиканских штатов.
Скорость ветра урагана достигала порядка 130 километров в час (около 36 метров в секунду), это соответствует первой из пяти категорий по шкале Саффира-Симпсона


Домашние животные на разрушенном ураганом “Ирма”...

Домашние животные на разрушенном ураганом “Ирма”...










Домашние животные на разрушенном ураганом “Ирма” острове Барбуда. Фотографии сделаны канадской благотворительной организацией по защите животных.


ТАЙФУН “ДОКСУРИ” ВО ВЬЕТНАМЕТайфун «Доксури»,...

ТАЙФУН “ДОКСУРИ” ВО ВЬЕТНАМЕТайфун «Доксури»,...











ТАЙФУН “ДОКСУРИ” ВО ВЬЕТНАМЕ


Тайфун «Доксури», известный также как «Маринг», в пятницу ударил по Центральному Вьетнаму. В результате буйства стихии погибли по меньшей мере четыре человека, еще 10 человек получили травмы, сообщает ABC News. Смертельные случаи зарегистрированы в провинциях Куангбинь, Нгеан и Тхыатхьен-Хюэ.
Сильный ветер, скорость которого местами достигала 185 км/ч, повалил многочисленные деревья, линии электропередачи и повредил тысячи домов. Многие районы остались без электроэнергии. Сильные дожди местами вызвали наводнения.
Во власти непогоды оказались шесть прибрежных районов. Сильный ветер повредил крыши 62,5 тыс. домов в провинции Хатинь. В соседней провинции Куангбинь повреждены около 50 тыс. домов. Пожилой мужчина, пытаясь укрепить свой дом, упал и умер от травмы головы. Один человек утонул в паводковых водах разлившейся реки. В провинции Нгаен 83-летняя женщина также погибла из-за падения обломков. Еще по меньшей мере 10 человек получили травмы в результате падений деревьев или мусора.


Needle ?, Greek and Roman ArtMedium: BronzeFletcher Fund,…

Needle ?, Greek and Roman ArtMedium: BronzeFletcher Fund,…


Needle ?, Greek and Roman Art


Medium: Bronze


Fletcher Fund, 1925

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/251917


Typhoon “Talim” closing in on Kyushu, after dumping record-breaking rain on Okinawa

Typhoon “Talim” closing in on Kyushu, after dumping record-breaking rain on Okinawa

After ripping through the Okinawa island chain, Japan and passing close to China, forcing the evacuation of more than 200 000 people, Typhoon “Talim” is now on its way toward mainland Japan. It is expected to be a Category 1 hurricane equivalent when it makes landfall over Kyushu, Japan on September 17.


Talim lashed southern Okinawan island chain on Wednesday, September 13, packing gusts of up to 252 km/h (156 mph), uprooting trees and knocking down power lines. More than 18 000 people were without power in the city of Miyako, home to around 54 000 people.


The Miyako-Jima Island airport measured a record-breaking 479.04 mm (18.86 inches) of rain over the 24-hour period on Wednesday. This is the most rain the island has seen in 40 years, since 1977 when reliable records began. Over a 48-hour period, the same station recorded 515.62 mm (20.30 inches), which is also a record.


At 15:00 UTC on September 15, the center of Typhoon “Talim” was located about 600 km (373 miles) SSW of Kagoshima, Kyushu. Its maximum sustained winds were 139 km/h (86 mph), making it a Category 1 hurricane equivalent on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The typhoon is moving northeastward at a speed of 9 km/h (5.7 mph)


Due to its quasi-stationary motion over the last 24 hours, ocean upwelling has brought cooler waters to the surface leading to a weakening trend, JTWC notes.


However, the weakening trend appears to have stabilized as Talim is now accelerating east-northeastward around a deep-layered subtropical ridge to the southwest.


Talim is forecast to continue to track east-northeastward until it makes landfall. Sea surface temperatures in the region are expected to improve as the system moves away from the area of upwelled water.


Typhoon Talim forecast track by JTWC on September 15, 2017


The system is expected to remain steady around 139 km/h (86 mph) over the next 36 hours as it makes landfall southeast of Sasebo, Japan around midnight UTC on September 17.


Talim will then quickly move over Shikoku and western Honshu and transition into a significant extratropical low by 15:00 UTC on September 18.


Featured image: Typhoon “Talim” at 17:40 UTC on September 14, 2017. Credit: JMA/Himawari-8 (CIRA)


apsaravis: Cynthiacetus, skeleton. Just look at those tiny…

apsaravis: Cynthiacetus, skeleton. Just look at those tiny…



apsaravis:



Cynthiacetus, skeleton. Just look at those tiny hindlimbs ;o


(Gallery of Paleontology and Comparative Anatomy, Paris. Photos taken by me.)



Tomb of early classic Maya ruler found in Guatemala

Tomb of early classic Maya ruler found in Guatemala


The tomb of a Maya ruler excavated this summer at the Classic Maya city of Waka’ in northern Guatemala is the oldest royal tomb yet to be discovered at the site, the Ministry of Culture and Sports of Guatemala has announced.











Tomb of early classic Maya ruler found in Guatemala
Burial 80 during excavation shows stone cup in the center surrounded by bones 
[Credit: Proyecto Arqueológico Waka’ and the Ministry of 
Culture and Sports of Guatemala]

“The Classic Maya revered their divine rulers and treated them as living souls after death,” said research co-director David Freidel, professor of anthropology in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis.


“This king’s tomb helped to make the royal palace acropolis holy ground, a place of majesty, early in the history of the Wak — centipede — dynasty. It’s like the ancient Saxon kings England buried in Old Minister, the original church underneath Winchester Cathedral.”


The tomb, discovered by Guatemalan archaeologists of the U.S.-Guatemalan El Perú-Waka’ Archaeological Project (Proyecto Arqueológico Waka’, or PAW), has been provisionally dated by ceramic analysis to  300-350 A.D., making it the earliest known royal tomb in the northwestern Petén region of Guatemala.











Tomb of early classic Maya ruler found in Guatemala
Jade mask from Burial 80, painted red with cinnabar paint 
[Credit: Proyecto Arqueológico Waka’ and the Ministry of 
Culture and Sports of Guatemala]

Previous research at the site has revealed six royal tombs and sacrificial offering burials dating to the fifth, sixth and seventh centuries A.D.


El Perú-Waka’ is about 40 miles west of the famous Maya site of Tikal near the San Pedro Martir River in Laguna del Tigre National Park. In the Classic period, this royal city commanded major trade routes running north to south and east to west.


The findings, first disclosed at a Guatemalan symposium sponsored by the Ministry of Culture, suggest the new tomb, known as “Burial 80,” dates from the early years of the Wak (centipede in Mayan) royal dynasty.











Tomb of early classic Maya ruler found in Guatemala
Palace Acropolis at the Maya city of El Peru-Waka in northern Guatemala 
[Credit: Damien Marken]

One of the earliest known Maya dynasties, the Wak is thought to have been established in the second century A.D. based on calculations from a later historical text at the site.


Although the ruler in Burial 80, identified as a mature man, was not accompanied by inscribed artifacts and is therefore anonymous, he is possibly King Te’ Chan Ahk, a historically known Wak king who was ruling in the early fourth century A.D., the research team suggests.


Freidel has directed research at this site in collaboration with Guatemalan and foreign archaeologists since 2003.











Tomb of early classic Maya ruler found in Guatemala
Map of the Maya world [Credit: Keith Eppich]

Anthropologists Juan Carlos Pérez Calderon of San Carlos University in Guatemala and Damien Marken of Bloomsburg University in Pennsylvania are project co-directors. Olivia Navarro-Farr, assistant professor at the College of Wooster in Ohio, is co-principal investigator and long-term supervisor of the site.


Calderon and Guatemalan archaeologists Griselda Pérez Robles and Damaris Menéndez supervised tunnel excavations inside the Palace Acropolis that led to the new tomb.


Identification of the tomb as royal is based on the presence of a jade portrait mask depicting the ruler with the forehead hair tab of the Maize God. Maya kings were regularly portrayed as Maize God impersonators. This forehead tab has a unique “Greek Cross” symbol which means “Yellow” and “Precious” in ancient Mayan. This symbol is also associated with the Maize God.


Robles and Menéndez discovered the mask under the head of the ruler, and it may have been made to cover the face rather than as a chest pectoral. Archaeologists at Tikal in the 1960s discovered a similar greenstone mask in the earliest Maya royal tomb, dating to the first century A.D.


Additional offerings in Burial 80 included 22 ceramic vessels, Spondylus shells, jade ornaments and a shell pendant carved as a crocodile. The remains of the ruler and some ornaments like the portrait mask were painted bright red. Burial 80 was reverentially reentered after 600 A.D. at least once, and it is possible that the bones were painted during this reentry.


Source: Washington University in St. Louis [September 14, 2017]




TANN




Two-storey Byzantine structure discovered in ancient city of Myra

Two-storey Byzantine structure discovered in ancient city of Myra


Archaeologists have unearthed a multi-level building after two years of excavation work around the Saint Nicholas Memorial Museum, Turkey’s southern Antalya province.











Two-storey Byzantine structure discovered in ancient city of Myra
DHA Photo

The excavation work in Antalya’s Demre (formerly Greek Myra) district has been ongoing for 27 years, with the most recent dig being conducted by a team from Hacettepe University lead by Professor Sema Doğan. Along with a team of five scientists, 10 students and 13 site workers, Doğan has been working to unearth the western part of the site for two years.


The recent find of a two-story building at the site is an exciting discovery for the team. The vaulted structure with a monumental entrance was found to the west of the Saint Nicholas Memorial Museum’s courtyard. The outer courtyard also contained a special water well.


A full ancient graveyard was also unearthed at the building’s entrance. Two of the burial places have been opened, revealing the remains of eight people in one of the graves. Priests or clergymen were likely laid to rest in the front graves, evidence suggests.


Drawings have also been located on the walls of the structure, which are believed to depict Jesus Christ, Mary, and Saint Nicholas. A team of Anthropologists have begun studying the newfound wall-etchings.


Assistant leader of the excavation Sema Fındık told DHA, “In 2017, we continued digging on the western flank of the church, this is how we found this new two-story building. We then figured out that there was a graveyard at the entrance of the building,”


“After that, we came across the drawings, when we continued digging we realized the structure was far bigger than we initially thought. We’ll continue our excavation work and discover the full extent of this new building,” she said.


Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaos of Myra, was a 4th century Christian saint and Greek bishop in Myra, located on modern-day Turkey’s southern Mediterranean coast. Known for his habit of gift giving he served as inspiration for the Dutch figure of “Sinterklaas,” which eventually was shortened to “Santa Claus.”


Source: Daily Sabah [September 15, 2017]




TANN




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